CAGE 9M347 - BIGELOW LABORATORY FOR OCEAN
USA

BIGELOW LABORATORY FOR OCEAN

SCIENCES

CAGE Code: 9M347
DUNS: 077474757
60 BIGELOW DRIVE
EAST BOOTHBAY ME 04544
UNITED STATES

Telephone: 207-315-2567
Fax: 202-747-3257

BIGELOW LABORATORY FOR OCEAN, SCIENCES is an Active Commercial Supplier with the Cage Code 9M347 and is tracked by Dun & Bradstreet under DUNS Number 077474757.

Additional Data For CAGE 9M347

SIC Code 1:8733
Status:A
Type:F
Size:A
Primary Business:N
Type of Business:N
Woman Owned:N
CAO:S2206A
ADP CNT CT:HQ0337

USA Government Contracting Activity for 9M347

Friday, November 17, 2017
$94,947.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE EARTHS OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS ARE COMPRISED OF A MYRIAD OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THAT CREATE ADAPTIVE AND RESILIENT ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES. THESE ECOSYSTEMS ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE PLANETS BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES SUCH AS CARBON, NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, SILICA, IRON, ETC., WHICH, IN TURN, ARE COUPLED TO AND INFLUENCED BY THE PLANETS CLIMATE; THE OCEANS BIOLOGICAL CARBON PUMP IS ONE SUCH CYCLE SEE VOLK AND HOFFERT, 1985. THE STRENGTH AND EFFICIENCY OF THE BIOLOGICAL PUMP ARE CONTROLLED BY PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON POC PRODUCTION NEAR THE SURFACE AND ITS TROPHIC REMINERALIZATION WITH DEPTH SEE BUESSELER 2007; NEUER 2002, WHICH IS EXTENSIVELY REGULATED BY THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES PFTS. WE PROPOSE A BIOOPTICAL LABORATORY STUDY TO DEVELOP A MORE EXTENSIVE PHYTOPLANKTON SPECTRAL LIBRARY THAT WILL BE COUPLED WITH SATELLITE RADIANCE PRODUCTS AND EXISTING TIME SERIES DATASETS OF PFTS TO IMPROVE OUR ABILITY TO OBSERVE AND PREDICT CHANGES IN PFTS IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CONSEQUENT IMPACTS ON THE BIOLOGICAL CARBON PUMP. SPECIFICALLY WE WILL: 1. COMPARE PHYTOPLANKTON SPECTRAL SHAPE PFT ALGORITHMS SEE PHYDOTAX, PALACIOS, 2015 AND HPLC BASED PIGMENT DISTRIBUTIONS OF PFTS WITH DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF PFT DISTRIBUTIONS AT OCEAN TIME SERIES SITES. 2. CONDUCT CONTROLLED LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS FOR EACH MAJOR PFT QUANTIFYING CHANGES IN OPTICAL FINGERPRINTS, PIGMENT CONTENT AND CHL A AND POC NORMALIZED PIGMENT RATIOS IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE VARIABLES IN MULTI STRESSOR EXPERIMENTS. 3. REFINE EXISTING PFT ALGORITHMS BY INCORPORATING NEW MEASUREMENTS OF CHANGES IN OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PIGMENT CONTENT OF CULTURES GROWN UNDER CONDITIONS REPRESENTATIVE OF FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE. 4. RE COMPARE THE ALGORITHMS DERIVED IN TASK 2 AND 3 ABOVE TO THE TIME SERIES OBSERVATIONS TO ASSESS IF THERE IS IMPROVEMENT IN AGREEMENT BETWEEN IN SITU OBSERVATIONS AND SATELLITE PRODUCTS AND THE ABILITY OF THESE NEW ALGORITHMS TO DETECT OBSERVED ECOSYSTEM CHANGES. WE WILL LEVERAGE ACCESS TO THE FACILITIES OF THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR MARINE ALGAE AND MICROBIOTA NCMA AT BIGELOW LABORATORY AND GROW REPRESENTATIVES OF EACH PFT IN SEMI CONTINUOUS CULTURES IN CONDITIONS REPRESENTATIVE OF PRESENT AND FUTURE OCEAN CONDITIONS. MANNINOS GROUP WILL COLLECT A SPECTRAL LIBRARY OF THESE TAXA THAT WILL CONSIST OF HYPERSPECTRAL UV VIS ABSORBANCE AND MULTI SPECTRAL AND ANGULAR SCATTERING PROPERTIES AND APPLY RADIATIVE TRANSFER NUMERICAL MODELING TO DERIVE HYPERSPECTRAL UV V IS REFLECTANCE. THIS EXPERIMENTAL SPECTRAL LIBRARY WILL BE USED TO REFINE AND EVALUATE THE PHYDOTAX APPROACH SUCH AS PALACIOS FOR OUR OPEN OCEAN STUDY REGIONS AND OTHER SPECTRAL SHAPE BASED ALGORITHMS FOR RETRIEVAL OF PFTS FROM THE PACE AND OTHER HYPERSPECTRAL AND MULTISPECTRAL OCEAN COLOR SENSORS. WE WILL VALIDATE THESE PFT APPROACHES USING DATA FROM THE BERMUDA ATLANTIC TIME SERIES STUDY BATS SITE, WHICH HAS A GREATER THAN 20 YEAR RECORD OF MONTHLY OPTICAL SCATTERING, ABSORPTION AND REMOTE SENSING REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS SUCH AS BERMUDA BIOOPTICS PROGRAM, HPLC PIGMENTS SUCH AS LOMAS 2013, AND AN APPROXIMATELY 20 YEAR RECORD OF PFTS, FOR PICO AND NANOPHYTOPLANKTON SUCH AS WALLHEAD 2013, AND HAS BEEN SHOWN TO EXPERIENCE STRONG VARIABILITY IN SEASONAL FORCING AS WELL AS LONGER TERM CLIMATE OSCILLATIONS FOR EXAMPLE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION. WE WILL ALSO USE THE ATLANTIC ZONE MONITORING PROGRAM PHYTOPLANKTON TIME SERIES FROM THE SCOTIAN SHELF TO PROVIDE A CONTRAST IN PFT ABUNDANCE AND PHYSICAL REGIME. THESE TIME SERIES WILL ALLOW US TO INVESTIGATE BOTH TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. THIS PROPOSAL RESPONDS TO SECTION A.3 OCEAN BIOLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, SUBSECTION 2.1 RESEARCH IN OCEAN ECOLOGY. SPECIFICALLY IT FITS THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PACE SCIENCE MISSION AND WILL PROVIDE MUCH NEEDED INFORMATION ON IMPROVED PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPE ALGORITHMS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX17AB90G  
Tuesday, November 7, 2017
$322,143.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE ONGOING CHANGES IN THE CIRCULATION OF THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC ARE, WITHOUT QUESTION, IMPACTING ITS MARINE ECOSYSTEMS, YET OUR QUANTITATIVE UNDERSTANDING OF SUCH ECOLOGICAL CHANGE(S) REMAINS MEAGER. A FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGE IS TO PREDICT WHETHER NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION (NETPP) IN THIS REGION WILL INCREASE OR DECREASE UNDER CHANGING NORTHERLY AND SOUTHERLY ADVECTIVE FLOWS. HERE, WE SUGGEST THAT THE BALANCE WILL DEPEND ON REGIONAL BOTTOM-UP DRIVERS (E.G., STRATIFICATION, NUTRIENT AND LIGHT AVAILABILITY, COMMUNITY COMPOSITION) AND TOP-DOWN DRIVERS (E.G., GRAZING). . A GROWING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SURFACE AND DEEP OVERFLOWS, COUNTERFLOWS, AND RECIRCULATION PATTERNS WITHIN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC IS EMERGING THAT INDICATES STRONGER INFLUENCES OF THE ATLANTIC SURFACE WATER (AW) AND ARCTIC-ORIGIN WATER (ARW) ON EACH OTHER AND ON THE AVERAGE CIRCULATION PATTERNS WITHIN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT. WE DEFINE THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AS THE REGION ENCOMPASSED BY THE GREENLAND-ICELAND-NORWEGIAN (GIN), IRMINGER AND LABRADOR SEAS, WHERE WARMER AND SALTIER AW LADEN WITH NUTRIENTS, PLANKTON AND DETRITUS MOVES NORTH IN MULTIPLE BRANCHES INTO THE LABRADOR SEA, INTO THE GIN SEAS AND, EVENTUALLY, INTO THE ARCTIC OCEAN. FRESHER AND COLDER ARW WITH SEA ICE, LOW NUTRIENTS, LOW PLANKTON AND HIGH COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER MOVES SOUTHWARDS ALONG THE EDGE OF THE EASTERN GREENLAND AND WESTERN LABRADOR SEAS AND INTO THE N. ATLANTIC. . HERE, WE WILL FOCUS ON THE BALANCE OF NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AS AFFECTED BY (I) ADVECTIVE LOSSES AND GAINS WITHIN THIS REGION AT LARGE-SCALES INTERACTION WITH RESPECT TO BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN THE TEMPERATE N. ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC OCEANS; (II) LATERAL AND VERTICAL EXPORT PRODUCTION WITHIN SUB-REGIONS OF THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AT INTERMEDIATE SCALES; AND (III) ADVECTIVE AND LOCAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC REGION. OUR QUESTIONS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: . (Q1) WHAT BOTTOM-UP (PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL) FACTORS CONTROL THE NETPP LEVELS IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC, WHERE AND WHEN? (Q2) WHAT ARE THE CONTROLS OF SEASONAL AND SUB-SEASONAL VARIABILITIES AND TRENDS IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC? (Q3) WHAT IS THE BALANCE BETWEEN LOCAL AND ADVECTED NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC DURING THE GROWTH SEASON? . WE PROPOSE TO USE A HIERARCHY OF MODELS INCLUDING A FULL 3D, COUPLED, BIOGEOCHEMICAL-PHYSICAL MODEL AT REGIONAL SCALE (SINMOD) AND A SPECIALIZED 1D SATELLITE OCEAN COLOR MODEL FOR PHYTOPLANKTON NETPP (UQAR-TAKUVIK), BOTH OF WHICH ARE EXCEPTIONALLY WELL TUNED TO HIGH LATITUDES. MODEL SIMULATIONS WILL BE DONE IN CONCERT WITH MINING HISTORICAL FIELD AND SATELLITE DATA TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF NETPP AND ITS PHYSICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONTROLS OVER AN AVERAGE ANNUAL CYCLE IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC. . OUR RESULTS WILL SHED LIGHT IF THE MAGNITUDE OF NETPP WILL INCREASE OR DECREASE DUE TO ENHANCED STRATIFICATION (WARMER AW OR FRESHER ARW CONDITIONS, LESS NUTRIENTS) AND GRAZING (IMMIGRATING OR RETURNING ZOOPLANKTON). ALTERNATIVELY, LESS SEA ICE IN FRAM STRAIT AND THE GREENLAND SEA MAY RESULT IN MORE AND EARLIER OPEN WATERS AND LESS STRATIFICATION THAT MAY LEAD TO HIGHER NETPP VALUES, AS HAS BEEN PREDICTED NORTH AND EAST OF SPITSBERGEN. A NORTHWARDS SHIFT IN NETPP DUE TO ENHANCED AW ADVECTION IS EXPECTED. . OUR PROJECT RESPONDS TO THE ROSES 2015 A.3 OBB (AMENDED) ACTIVITY 2.3 RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE GALWAY STATEMENT: NORTH ATLANTIC-ARCTIC OCEANOGRAPHIC PROCESSES BY FOCUSING ON THE EXCHANGES ACROSS, AND PROCESSES WITHIN, THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AND THEIR EFFECT ON NETPP, IN A REGION LOCATED NORTH OF THE NASA-SPONSORED EXPORTS SELECTED N. ATLANTIC FIELD SITE, WITH A TEAM OF CANADIAN, DANISH, NORWEGIAN AND US RESEARCHERS. OUR PROJECT WILL OPENLY SHARE ALL FIELD DATA ASSEMBLED AS WELL AS PROMOTE RESEARCHER MOBILITY BY INCLUDING A POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW AND A PART-TIME GRADUATE STUDENT, BOTH OF WHOM WILL GAIN INTERNATIONAL NETWORKING AND EXPERIENCE.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  80NSSC18K0081  
Wednesday, September 20, 2017
($322,143.00)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE ONGOING CHANGES IN THE CIRCULATION OF THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC ARE, WITHOUT QUESTION, IMPACTING ITS MARINE ECOSYSTEMS, YET OUR QUANTITATIVE UNDERSTANDING OF SUCH ECOLOGICAL CHANGE(S) REMAINS MEAGER. A FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGE IS TO PREDICT WHETHER NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION (NETPP) IN THIS REGION WILL INCREASE OR DECREASE UNDER CHANGING NORTHERLY AND SOUTHERLY ADVECTIVE FLOWS. HERE, WE SUGGEST THAT THE BALANCE WILL DEPEND ON REGIONAL BOTTOM-UP DRIVERS (E.G., STRATIFICATION, NUTRIENT AND LIGHT AVAILABILITY, COMMUNITY COMPOSITION) AND TOP-DOWN DRIVERS (E.G., GRAZING). A GROWING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SURFACE AND DEEP OVERFLOWS, COUNTERFLOWS, AND RECIRCULATION PATTERNS WITHIN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC IS EMERGING THAT INDICATES STRONGER INFLUENCES OF THE ATLANTIC SURFACE WATER (AW) AND ARCTIC-ORIGIN WATER (ARW) ON EACH OTHER AND ON THE AVERAGE CIRCULATION PATTERNS WITHIN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT. WE DEFINE THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AS THE REGION ENCOMPASSED BY THE GREENLAND-ICELAND-NORWEGIAN (GIN), IRMINGER AND LABRADOR SEAS, WHERE WARMER AND SALTIER AW LADEN WITH NUTRIENTS, PLANKTON AND DETRITUS MOVES NORTH IN MULTIPLE BRANCHES INTO THE LABRADOR SEA, INTO THE GIN SEAS AND, EVENTUALLY, INTO THE ARCTIC OCEAN. FRESHER AND COLDER ARW WITH SEA ICE, LOW NUTRIENTS, LOW PLANKTON AND HIGH COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER MOVES SOUTHWARDS ALONG THE EDGE OF THE EASTERN GREENLAND AND WESTERN LABRADOR SEAS AND INTO THE N. ATLANTIC. HERE, WE WILL FOCUS ON THE BALANCE OF NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AS AFFECTED BY (I) ADVECTIVE LOSSES AND GAINS WITHIN THIS REGION AT LARGE-SCALES INTERACTION WITH RESPECT TO BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN THE TEMPERATE N. ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC OCEANS; (II) LATERAL AND VERTICAL EXPORT PRODUCTION WITHIN SUB-REGIONS OF THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AT INTERMEDIATE SCALES; AND (III) ADVECTIVE AND LOCAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC REGION. OUR QUESTIONS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: (Q1) WHAT BOTTOM-UP (PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL) FACTORS CONTROL THE NETPP LEVELS IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC, WHERE AND WHEN? (Q2) WHAT ARE THE CONTROLS OF SEASONAL AND SUB-SEASONAL VARIABILITIES AND TRENDS IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC? (Q3) WHAT IS THE BALANCE BETWEEN LOCAL AND ADVECTED NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC DURING THE GROWTH SEASON? WE PROPOSE TO USE A HIERARCHY OF MODELS INCLUDING A FULL 3D, COUPLED, BIOGEOCHEMICAL-PHYSICAL MODEL AT REGIONAL SCALE (SINMOD) AND A SPECIALIZED 1D SATELLITE OCEAN COLOR MODEL FOR PHYTOPLANKTON NETPP (UQAR-TAKUVIK), BOTH OF WHICH ARE EXCEPTIONALLY WELL TUNED TO HIGH LATITUDES. MODEL SIMULATIONS WILL BE DONE IN CONCERT WITH MINING HISTORICAL FIELD AND SATELLITE DATA TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF NETPP AND ITS PHYSICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONTROLS OVER AN AVERAGE ANNUAL CYCLE IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC. OUR RESULTS WILL SHED LIGHT IF THE MAGNITUDE OF NETPP WILL INCREASE OR DECREASE DUE TO ENHANCED STRATIFICATION (WARMER AW OR FRESHER ARW CONDITIONS, LESS NUTRIENTS) AND GRAZING (IMMIGRATING OR RETURNING ZOOPLANKTON). ALTERNATIVELY, LESS SEA ICE IN FRAM STRAIT AND THE GREENLAND SEA MAY RESULT IN MORE AND EARLIER OPEN WATERS AND LESS STRATIFICATION THAT MAY LEAD TO HIGHER NETPP VALUES, AS HAS BEEN PREDICTED NORTH AND EAST OF SPITSBERGEN. A NORTHWARDS SHIFT IN NETPP DUE TO ENHANCED AW ADVECTION IS EXPECTED. OUR PROJECT RESPONDS TO THE ROSES 2015 A.3 OBB (AMENDED) ACTIVITY 2.3 RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE GALWAY STATEMENT: NORTH ATLANTIC-ARCTIC OCEANOGRAPHIC PROCESSES BY FOCUSING ON THE EXCHANGES ACROSS, AND PROCESSES WITHIN, THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AND THEIR EFFECT ON NETPP, IN A REGION LOCATED NORTH OF THE NASA-SPONSORED EXPORTS SELECTED N. ATLANTIC FIELD SITE, WITH A TEAM OF CANADIAN, DANISH, NORWEGIAN AND US RESEARCHERS. OUR PROJECT WILL OPENLY SHARE ALL FIELD DATA ASSEMBLED AS WELL AS PROMOTE RESEARCHER MOBILITY BY INCLUDING A POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW AND A PART-TIME GRADUATE STUDENT, BOTH OF WHOM WILL GAIN INTERNATIONAL NETWORKING AND EXPERIENCE
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX17AB99G  
Monday, September 18, 2017
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
THE GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SUPPORT THE PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON PIC ALGORITHM WITHIN THE SUOMI NATIONAL POLAR ORBITING PARTNERSHIP SUOMI NPP. THIS ALGORITHM IS CRITICAL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORES CALCIFYING PHYTOPLANKTON AND UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THESE ORGANISMS, WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL FOR THE FUNCTIONING OF THE OCEAN BIOLOGICAL PUMP. THIS WORK HAS THREE CENTRAL OBJECTIVES, A, PIC ALGORITHMIMPROVEMENTS: THERE ARE SEVERAL SOURCES OF ERROR WITHIN THE PIC ALGORITHM THAT NEED IMPROVEMENT, DERIVATION OF THE DIFFUSE ATTENUATION OF EFFICIENT USED IN THE MODEL, DETERMINATION OF THE COCCOLITH BACKSCATTERING CROSS SECTION AND DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTABLE TO PHYTOPLANKTON CHLOROPHYLL. THIS PROPOSED WORK WILL INVESTIGATE ALL THREE ASPECTS WHICH WILL ALLOW FOR AN IMPROVED VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM. THIS WORK ALSO WILL RESULT IN AN UPDATED PIC ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT ATBD. B, PIC ALGORITHM EVALUATION, THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM IN THE SUOMI NPP ERA IS THE STILL-LIMITED SEA TRUTH PIC DATA TAKEN SINCE THE LAUNCH OF NPP IN OCTOBER, 2011, AVAILABLE FOR PRODUCT EVALUATION. THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS 350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT FOR SEVERAL MORE DECADES. TO DATE, THERE ARE 74 VALIDATED SHIP PIC MATCH-UPS WITH VIIRS PIC ESTIMATES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE A MODEST FIELD VALIDATION EFFORT 240 STATIONS WITHIN THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC TO AUGMENT THE FIELD PIC DATA AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATION OF THE VIIRS PIC PRODUCT. WE PROPOSE TO PARTICIPATE IN THREE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE SUOMI NPP MISSION. THIS WORK WILL PROVIDE COLLECTION ANALYSIS OF OTHER VARIABLES, TOO, CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON POC, INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES IOPS E.G. PARTICLE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING AND APPARENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AOPS FOR VALIDATING VIIRS NORMALIZED WATER LEAVING RADIANCE MEASUREMENTS, ALL IN SUPPORT OF THEIR EVALUATION AS VIIRS EDRS AND CDRS. NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR THE FIELD WORK, ALL THREE CRUISES ARE PART OF THE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT PROGRAM, LONG SUPPORTED BY THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE U.K. C, CONTINUITY OF THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT, THE OVERARCHING GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SEAMLESSLY TRANSITION THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT FROM THE EOS ERA TO THE SUOMI NPP ERA AND ULTIMATELY TO THE JPSS AND PACE ERAS. CRITICAL IN THIS GOAL IS DEFINING THE ERROR BUDGETS OF THE VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM FOR COMPARISON TO THE SAME PRODUCT DERIVED FROM MODIS AND TRACEABLE TO THE ATBD. THIS WORK WILL BE WELL COORDINATED WITH THE OCEAN SCIENCE INVESTIGATOR LED PROCESSING SYSTEMS OCEAN SIPS. THIS PROPOSAL INCLUDES A REQUEST FOR A POST DOC IN ORDER TO BEGIN TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF SCIENTISTS FOR COCCOLITHOPHORE BIO-OPTICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL WORK IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC OCEAN COLOR PRODUCT. SIGNIFICANCE, THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS, 1,CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2, CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH 1, DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, 2 QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES AND 3 PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. ULTIMATELY, IT WILL ALLOW BETTER EVALUATION OF THE FUTURE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AS IT IS INFLUENCED BY CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ43A  
Monday, September 11, 2017
$14,253.00
1300: Department of Commerce
1305M2: DEPT OF COMMERCE NOAA

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF THE PURPOSE OF THIS ACQUISITION IS TO PROVIDE A NOAA SCIENCE PLAN STUDY FOR THE NATIONAL OCEAN SERVICE
AJ31: R&D- GENERAL SCIENCE/TECHNOLOGY: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (BASIC RESEARCH)

  DOCWC133C17SE1347  
Tuesday, August 15, 2017
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS: INTEGRATING THE MODIS PIC PRODUCT INTO THE CLIMATE DATA RECORD THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES THE SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE MODIS ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON ("PIC," OR SUSPENDED CALCIUM CARBONATE). THE ALGORITHM WORKS BY DERIVING PIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING, WHICH IS CONVERTED TO PIC CONCENTRATION. IT DETECTS CACO3 OF COCCOLITHOPHORES DUE TO THEIR RELATIVELY HIGH ABUNDANCE IN THE SEA AND THEIR EXTREMELY HIGH PIC-SPECIFIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING. BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHERS HAVE GENERALLY FOCUSED ON THE MOST VISIBLE, MESOSCALE COCCOLITHOPHORE BLOOMS AT HIGH LATITUDES (REPRESENTING 5% OF TIME AND SPACE), AS COMPARED TO THE MUCH-LESS-ABUNDANT COCCOLITHOPHORE POPULATIONS FOUND IN OTHER ENVIRONMENTS (95% OF TIME AND SPACE). THIS ALGORITHM ALLOWS POPULATIONS TO BE DISCERNED WHETHER THEY ARE IN BLOOMS OR AT LOWER CONCENTRATIONS, HAS BEEN VALIDATED IN EVERY MAJOR OCEAN ON EARTH, AND IS NOW MATURE ENOUGH TO BE ADDRESSED IN THIS "SCIENCE AND DATA ANALYSIS" PROPOSAL. SPECIFICALLY, WE HAVE FIVE OBJECTIVES: 1) DEFINE THE IMPORTANT SCALES OF VARIABILITY OF PIC BY COMPARING RESULTS FROM MODIS AND MISR SENSORS (THE FORMER HAS 1KM RESOLUTION, THE LATTER HAS 275M RESOLUTION), 2) ADDRESS WHETHER PIC HAS SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED OVER THE MODIS MISSIONS, BOTH GLOBALLY AND REGIONALLY (IN THE LONGHURST BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCES), 3) EXAMINE WHETHER THERE HAVE BEEN CHANGES IN THE ANNUAL PHENOLOGY (TIME OF ANNUAL BLOOM AND SENESCENCE) OF COCCOLITHOPHORES, ON A GLOBAL OR REGIONAL BASIS, 4) ASSESS WHETHER THE TURNOVER OF PIC (SET BY PRODUCTION RATES MINUS LOSS RATES ASSOCIATED WITH GRAZING, DISSOLUTION, AND SINKING) HAS VARIED OVER THE PERIOD OF THE MODIS MISSIONS, AND 5) DETERMINE WHETHER THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORE PIC IS SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED BY THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF HYDROGRAPHIC FRONTS AND WHETHER BLOOM TIMING IS BEING AFFECTED BY MAJOR WIND EVENTS AND CHANGES THEREOF. UNDER THE RUBRIC OF "CARBON CYCLE&ECOSYSTEMS," THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPOSED WORK FOCUSES ON THE CYCLING OF CARBON WITHIN THE OCEAN, SPECIFICALLY BY ONE FUNCTIONAL GROUP, THE CALCIFIERS. ELUCIDATION OF LONG-TERM TRENDS AND CHANGES IN PHENOLOGY WILL HAVE STRONG RELEVANCE TO OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, ESPECIALLY GIVEN THE IMPORTANCE OF PIC TO THE RATE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PUMP. OUR APPLICATION OF MISR TO COCCOLITHOPHORE STUDIES WILL ALLOW SMALLER-SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF BLOOMS AT ~1/4 THE SPATIAL SCALE OF MODIS, WHICH WILL PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE VARIOUS PHYSICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE AND TIME. THE ADVENT OF AQUARIUS SALINITY DATA, WHEN COMBINED WITH MODIS SST DATA, NOW ALLOWS THE ESTIMATION OF SEA SURFACE DENSITY AND, USING GRADIENT FINDING ALGORITHMS, WILL ALLOW US TO DETERMINE WHETHER STEEP GRADIENTS IN COCCOLITHOPHORE DENSITY FALL AT MAJOR OCEAN HYDROGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES. VARIOUS OTHER DATA SETS AVAILABLE FROM THE CURRENT CONSTELLATION OF EARTH OBSERVING SATELLITES (E.G., WIND SPEED) WILL ALSO ALLOW BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPORTANCE OF FRONTAL BOUNDARIES AND WIND MIXING (USING AMSR-E; AQUARIUS), AS THEY INFLUENCE GLOBAL CALCITE PRODUCTION IN THE SEA. THIS PROPOSED WORK DIRECTLY FOCUSES ON TWO OF NASA'S FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS IN EARTH SCIENCE: (A) "HOW IS THE GLOBAL EARTH SYSTEM CHANGING?" AND (B) "WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF CHANGE IN THE EARTH SYSTEM, THEIR MAGNITUDES, AND TRENDS?" THE WORK ALSO CONTRIBUTES TO OTHER CRITICAL NASA EARTH SCIENCE GOALS: TO QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS, AND CARBON FLUXES; AND TO UNDERSTAND HOW MARINE ECOSYSTEMS (OF WHICH PIC IS A MAJOR PART OF THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE) ARE CHANGING. THIS RESEARCH WILL YIELD NEW KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE TURNOVER WITHIN THE CARBONATE SYSTEM AS OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS RESPOND TO GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AL92G  
Friday, August 11, 2017
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROJECT WILL CONTINUE THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS) WHICH IS A 35+YEAR, NASA-CENTRIC, FIELD PROGRAM THAT CROSSES THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) TO COLLECT BIO-OPTICAL, HYDROGRAPHICAL, BIOLOGICAL, BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL (INCLUDING CARBON-RELEVANT) DATA FOR USE IN SATELLITE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION STUDIES, AS WELL AS A LONG-TERM TRANSECT TIME SERIES. WE PROPOSE TO USE A COMBINATION OF SATELLITE AND GNATS DATA (SHIPBOARD AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS) TO CONSTRAIN A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE. THE OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT GNATS HAS PROVIDED CRITICAL CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR SEAWIFS, MODIS, AND VIIRS SENSORS, AS WELL AS INSIGHTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC CARBON CYCLE CHANGES IN THE GOM, A SEMI-ENCLOSED SHELF SEA, WITH STRONG LAND-SEA CONNECTIONS VIA 25 SURROUNDING WATERSHEDS. WE DIRECT THIS PROPOSAL TO THE SECOND RESEARCH THEME OF THE NASA ROSES 13 CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE PROGRAM: CARBON DYNAMICS ALONG TERRESTRIAL-AQUATIC INTERFACES, INCLUDING LAND-OCEAN, LAND-FRESHWATER, AND COASTAL OCEAN REGIONS. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GOM, INCLUDING ITS CARBON CYCLE. THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY RELEVANT TO NASA (GIVEN THE NASA-CENTRIC GNATS SAMPLING) AND SECONDARILY TO NOAA, SPECIFICALLY FOR WORK ON PRODUCTIVITY, ALGAL BIOMASS, AND PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF U. S. COASTAL WATERS, AS WELL AS CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF THE NPP/VIIRS SENSOR. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS MEASURES ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE: PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; CALCITE), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC; E.G., CO2, HCO3-, AND CO3=, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO PH AND ALKALINITY). THESE FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE (INCLUDING RESERVOIRS AND FLUXES) PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING THE COASTAL OCEAN, FROM CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY (I.E. POC VARIABILITY THROUGH TIME ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN HYDROGRAPHY, DIFFERENT PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, ETC.), LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT (I.E. DOC AND POC VARIABILITY CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS), AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION (I.E. VARIABILITY IN DIC AND PIC CAUSED BY CHANGES IN CARBONATE SATURATION). SIMPLY PUT, THE ONLY WAY TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE THROUGH A COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH. THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL TO BE USED FOR THE GULF OF MAINE CARBON CYCLE CONSISTS OF SIZE-STRUCTURED CARBON POOLS OF DETRITAL MATERIAL, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES RANGING FROM PICOPLANKTON TO MICROPLANKTON, AND A SIZE-BASED ZOOPLANKTON PREDATOR GROUP. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS WILL BE DETERMINED BY BOTH SIZE AND FUNCTIONAL ROLE, AND THE MODEL WILL BE FORCED BY GOM PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. WE WILL VALIDATE THE MODEL AGAINST GNATS DATA, AND TEST THE ABILITY OF REMOTELY-SENSED PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, COUPLED WITH THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL, TO REPRODUCE THE OBSERVED DYNAMICS. WE WILL THEN USE THE MODEL TO TEST HYPOTHESES REGARDING THE FATE OF CARBON RESULTING FROM CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES SUCH AS INCREASED PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE. ANTICIPATED SCIENTIFIC OUTCOMES FROM THIS WORK WILL BE A) A LONGER DURATION, NASA-CENTRIC, COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT CAN RESOLVE CLIMATOLOGICAL PHENOMENA SPANNING TIME SCALES OF DAYS TO DECADES AND B) A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL BASED ON GNATS THAT USES REMOTELY-SENSED, SHIP AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE DATA TO CONSTRAIN THE MODEL AND TEST HYPOTHESES RELEVANT TO EACH PART OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AM77G  
Friday, August 4, 2017
$244,056.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
BACTERIA THAT UTILIZE IRON-OXIDATION (FE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA (FEOB)) AS THEIR PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE ARE ABUNDANT AND DIVERSE, DESPITE BEING CONSTRAINED TO SUB-OXIC HABITATS ON THE FULLY OXYGENATED MODERN EARTH. DURING MUCH OF EARTH'S HISTORY, PROBABLY STARTING AROUND 3 BILLION YEARS AGO, WHEN O2 LEVELS WERE MUCH LOWER OR FLUCTUATED BETWEEN OXIC AND ANOXIC CONDITIONS, THE OCEANS WERE REPLETE WITH FERROUS IRON. IT IS HIGHLY LIKELY THAT FEOB FLOURISHED. THESE BACTERIA COULD HAVE PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SHAPING CONDITIONS FOR LIFE ON THE EARLY EARTH, FURTHERMORE, DUE TO THE OVERALL ABUNDANCE OF IRON ON PLANETS AND PLANETARY BODIES, FE REDOX CHEMISTRY COULD BE A FUNDAMENTAL METABOLISM FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE. WE ALSO KNOW THAT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF MICROBIAL GROWTH ON IRON AT CIRCUMNEUTRAL PH, FEOB PRODUCE UNIQUE ORGANO-METALLIC NANO-AND MICRO-STRUCTURES THAT ARE INCORPORATED INTO THE ROCK RECORD, FORMING A BIOSIGNATURE FOR THEIR EXISTENCE AND ACTIVITY. NONETHELESS, OXYGEN-DEPENDENT FE-OXIDATION AT CIRCUMNEUTRAL PH REMAINS AMONG THE LEAST WELL UNDERSTOOD MAJOR LITHOTROPHIC METABOLISMS ON EARTH. THE PRIMARY GOAL OF THIS PROPOSAL IS TO DEVELOP A MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF MICROBIAL IRON OXIDATION USING COMPARATIVE GENOMICS AND TRANSCRIPTOMICS, AS WELL AS CONSTRAIN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS TO THIS PROBLEM BY ASSESSING THE DIVERSITY OF MECHANISMS CURRENTLY DISPLAYED BY MODERN FE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA. WITHIN THIS CONTEXT, A MAJOR TECHNICAL CHALLENGE WILL BE DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBUST PIPELINE FOR ANALYZING SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMES FROM BACTERIA. SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMICS IS A NOVEL APPROACH THAT WILL PROVIDE INFORMATION, NOT ONLY ABOUT THE GENETIC POTENTIAL OF UNCULTIVATED MICROBES, BUT ALSO ABOUT WHAT GENES THEY ARE ACTUALLY EXPRESSING, PROVIDING DIRECT INSIGHT TO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS THE BACTERIA ARE CARRYING OUT. IN ADDITION, IN TARGETING A POORLY UNDERSTOOD METABOLISM LIKE FE-OXIDATION, TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS MAY PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION AS TO THE SPECIFIC GENES OR GENE FAMILIES THAT ARE INVOLVED IN ENERGY CONSERVATION FROM FE-OXIDATION. WHILE THE SINGLE CELL GENOMICS CENTER AT BIGELOW HAS PROVEN ITS SUCCESS AT ACQUIRING DNA AND GENOMIC SEQUENCES FROM SINGLE CELLS, THE ACQUISITION OF MRNA AND DETERMINATION OF MRNA SEQUENCES HAS NOT BEEN DONE BEFORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL MICROORGANISMS. THUS, THIS APPROACH WILL OFFER SEVERAL TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES THAT, IF SUCCESSFULLY MET, WILL GREATLY ENHANCE OUR CAPACITY TO UNDERSTAND DIVERSE MICROBIAL METABOLISMS, INDEPENDENT OF OUR ABILITY TO CULTIVATE THE MICROBES RESPONSIBLE. IN ADDITION TO THIS SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMICS APPROACH, WORK WILL CONTINUE WITH THE EXPLORATION OF GENOMES FROM CURRENTLY AVAILABLE SINGLE AMPLIFIED GENOMES OF BOTH FRESHWATER AND MARINE FEOB, AS WELL AS ANALYSIS OF IN-SITU HABITATS USING MORE CONVENTIONAL METAGENOMIC AND METATRANSCRIPTOME METHODS. DUE TO THE UNIQUE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THESE TWO MAJOR GROUPS OF FE-OXIDIZERS, THIS KIND OF COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS COULD WELL INFORM US ABOUT MODES OF MICROBIAL EVOLUTION RELATED TO IRON METABOLISM. THE FEOB ARE AN EXCELLENT GROUP OF MICROBES TO TEST THESE METHODS ON DUE TO THEIR UNIQUE PHYSIOLOGY, DIVERSE, BUT CONSERVED PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY, AS WELL THERE BEING A GROUP OF CULTURED REPRESENTATIVES WITHIN A MUCH LARGER GROUP OF UNCULTIVATED MEMBERS. THIS PROJECT COULD CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANTLY TO ADVANCING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THEIR BIOLOGY, AND, PERHAPS EVEN MORE IMPORTANTLY PROVIDE NEW TOOLS FOR ASTROBIOLOGISTS, AND OTHER MICROBIAL ECOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS INTERESTED IN LEARNING ABOUT NOVEL MICROBIAL PROCESSES.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AM11G  
Tuesday, May 16, 2017
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
CARBON CYCLING WITHIN COASTAL CONTINENTAL MARGINS IS FUNDAMENTALLY IMPORTANT TO THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE. COASTAL OCEANS CONTRIBUTE ABOUT 1/3 OF THE TOTAL MARINE PRODUCTIVITY ACROSS THE GLOBE (OR ABOUT 16 PG (1PG =1E15G)). THEY RECEIVE ABOUT 1PG FROM TERRESTRIAL DISCHARGE VIA RIVERS. THEY CONTRIBUTE ABOUT HALF OF THE TOTAL GLOBAL OCEAN NEW PRODUCTION (3.6PG). THESE ARE BIG NUMBERS YET WE STILL DO NOT KNOW WHETHER COASTAL MARGINS ARE NET SOURCES OR SINKS FOR CARBON. THERE ARE FOUR COMPONENTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC). THE FIRST THREE CARBON FRACTIONS (POC, PIC, AND DOC) CAN BE ESTIMATED USING OPTICAL PROXIES WHILE THE FOURTH (DIC, ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION) IS BEST MEASURED CHEMICALLY. THERE ARE FEW COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT ASSESS ALL OF THESE COMPONENTS. THIS PROPOSAL IS A SUCCESSOR PROPOSAL FOR THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS), AN 18-YEAR TRANSECT TIME SERIES ACROSS THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) USING FERRIES, SMALL RESEARCH VESSELS, AND GLIDERS TO MEASURE ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE. DURING SEVERAL ANOMALOUSLY WET YEARS, GNATS DOCUMENTED SOME FUNDAMENTAL SHIFTS IN THE GOM SUCH AS SIGNIFICANT DROPS IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION (ASSOCIATED WITH POC AND PIC PRODUCTION) AND THE APPEARANCE OF UNEXPECTED HIGHLY SCATTERING PARTICLES<0.2UM DIAMETER (HENCE DOC), WELL OUT TO SEA. WE HAVE ALSO OBSERVED WINTER DIC CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS THE GOM, LOW ENOUGH THAT THE ENTIRE GOM CAN SHOW LOW ARAGONITE SATURATION VALUES<1.6 LEVELS THAT ARE KNOWN TO BE INHIBITORY TO CALCIFICATION BY CERTAIN MARINE ORGANISMS. HERE WE ARE PROPOSING TO (A) CONTINUE THE GNATS FOR THREE YEARS WITH EIGHT CRUISES PER YEAR (SIX ABOARD A COMMERCIAL FERRY AND TWO ABOARD A SMALL RESEARCH VESSEL) FOCUSING ON THE FOUR PARTS OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE, (B) FURTHER VALIDATE SATELLITE OCEAN-COLOR SENSORS FOR RADIANCE AND OTHER PRODUCTS IN THIS COMPLEX OPTICAL ENVIRONMENT, (C) MAKE GNATS INTO AN EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATORY BY TESTING A RANGE OF HYPOTHESES ON CHANGING PRODUCTIVITY AND THE SOURCE OF SUBMICRON SCATTERING PARTICLES, (D) CONSTRUCT CARBON CYCLE MODELS OF THE GOM BASED ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL FLUXES AND ALLOMETRIC SCALING PERFORMING MODEL INTERCOMPARISON AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING USING THE MODELS, AND (E) CONTINUE A COLLABORATION IN WHICH WE ARE DEPLOYING AN ABOVE-WATER LIDAR (LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING) FROM THE GNATS, ASSESSING THE LIDAR'S ABILITY TO PROFILE OPTICAL PROPERTIES DEEPER THAN ONE OPTICAL DEPTH. WE INCLUDE PREVIOUS RESULTS DEMONSTRATING THAT WE CAN TRACK WATER MASSES USING TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY, THEN DOCUMENT CO-VARYING CHANGES IN POC (BASED ON AN OPTICAL PROXY TO PARTICLE BACKSCATTERING), OXYGEN, AND CHLOROPHYLL IN THESE WATER MASSES; THESE ALLOW THE ESTIMATION OF NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION (NPP) AND NET COMMUNITY PRODUCTION. WE ALSO SHOW HOW ALLOMETRIC SCALING MODELS CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THESE ESTIMATIONS. WE ARE REQUESTING FUNDS TO UPGRADE ONE OF OUR SLOCUM GLIDERS TO CARRY A SUNA NITRATE SENSOR THAT WILL ALLOW US TO MORE ACCURATELY ESTIMATE NITRATE DEPLETION AND NPP. THESE GLIDER RESULTS WILL ALLOW US TO BETTER DISCERN AND QUANTIFY WHETHER THE GOM IS A NET SOURCE OR SINK FOR CARBON. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS PROVIDES CRITICAL INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING ALL ASPECTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE IN THIS TEMPERATE COASTAL REGION: CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY, HYDROGRAPHY, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS, PLUS POTENTIAL CHANGES DUE TO OCEAN ACIDIFICATION. SUCH RESULTS WILL PROVIDE INSIGHTS TO OTHER TEMPERATE COASTAL ZONES AROUND THE GLOBE. SIMPLY PUT, A SUSTAINED, COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH, SUCH AS THE KIND WE ARE PROPOSING HERE, IS THE OPTIMAL WAY FOR NASA TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE IN THIS COMPLEX COASTA
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX17AI77G  
Tuesday, April 25, 2017
$90,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
A CHANGING CLIMATE IMPLIES A SHIFT IN THE MAGNITUDE OF KEY ENVIRONMENTAL PROPERTIES SUCH AS TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION, AND PRODUCTIVITY. IT ALSO OFTEN CAUSES CHANGES IN THE PHENOLOGY THE SEASONAL TIMING OF FEATURES SUCH AS PEAKS OR TROUGHS IN THESE PROPERTIES. IN MARINE AND COASTAL SYSTEMS, MANY KEY ECOLOGICAL EVENTS MIGRATIONS, REPRODUCTION, AND EXPLOITATION OF BLOOMS RELY ON THE PHENOLOGY OF THE UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES. THE SOCIOECONOMIC BENEFITS OF THESE ECOSYSTEMS DERIVED FROM NATURAL RESOURCE EXTRACTION/PROCESSING AND RECREATION TOURISM ARE ALSO CLOSELY TIED TO THE TIMING OF SEASONAL EVENTS. CHANGES IN TIMING CAN OFTEN BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN CHANGES IN MAGNITUDE TO THE AFFECTED ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES. THERE ARE A FEW EXAMPLES OF PHENOLOGICAL CLIMATE INDICATORS IN THE NATIONAL CLIMATE ASSESSMENT, BUT THERE IS A NEED TO INCORPORATE PHENOLOGY INTO CLIMATE ASSESSMENTS MORE BROADLY. WE PROPOSE A STUDY THAT IDENTIFIES KEY PHENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND ANALYZES HOW THEY VARY OVER REGIONAL AND OCEAN BASIN SCALES, EVALUATES THESE INDICES AGAINST IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL SHIFTS TO DETERMINE A SUBSET OF PHENOLOGICAL INDICES THAT ARE MOST INFORMATIVE TO SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT, AND DEVELOPS INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION TOOLS FOR VIEWING PHENOLOGICAL INFORMATION. BASIN AND REGIONAL SCALE ANALYSIS OF PHENOLOGICAL TIME SERIES. FOR SOME MEASUREMENTS, EXTRACTING PHENOLOGICAL INDICES IS FAIRLY STRAIGHT FORWARD, SUCH AS THE DATE OF MAXIMUM WARMING. HOWEVER, SOME MEASUREMENTS, SUCH AS OCEAN COLOR, HAVE EXHIBITED COMPLEX SHIFTS IN PHENOLOGICAL PATTERNS, SUCH AS THE DIVISION OF ONE SEASONAL PEAK INTO MULTIPLE SEASONAL PEAKS. IN SUCH CASES, SIMPLE INDICES WILL NOT EFFECTIVELY REPRESENT THE PHENOLOGY. WE WILL DEVELOP AND TEST ROBUST ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING KEY PHENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES THAT CAN BE APPLIED GENERALLY TO NON STATIONARY TIME SERIES WITH BOTH SIMPLE AND COMPLEX SEASONAL PATTERNS. WE WILL USE THESE METHODOLOGIES TO CALCULATE PHENOLOGICAL INDEX TIME SERIES FOR A SUITE OF EARTH-SYSTEM DATA PRODUCTS: THE PRIMARY OCEANOGRAPHIC VARIABLES SUCH AS SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE, CHLOROPHYLLA AND ADDITIONAL DERIVED VARIABLES. TIME SERIES WILL BE COMPILED FOR EACH PIXEL ACROSS THE NORTH ATLANTIC AND NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN BASINS. WE AIM TO EXTRACT A SMALL NUMBER OF PHENOLOGICAL INDICES THAT ARE MOST INFORMATIVE AS TO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FULL DATA SET. THESE INDICES WILL BE ANALOGOUS TO CURRENT CLIMATE INDICES LIKE THE PACIFIC DECADAL OSCILLATION OR ATLANTIC MULTIDECADAL OSCILLATION, WHICH REPRESENT PRINCIPAL MODES OF VARIABILITY ACROSS LARGE PORTIONS OF THE GLOBE. EVALUATION BY COMPARISON WITH ECOLOGICAL TIME SERIES. WE WILL ASSESS THE UTILITY OF THE OCEANOGRAPHIC PHENOLOGY INDICATORS AND INDICES FOR TRACKING ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC RESPONSES AND IMPACTS. SPECIFICALLY, WE WILL EVALUATE HOW OCEAN PHENOLOGY INDICATORS RELATE TO CHANGES IN SPAWNING MIGRATION TIMING OF ANADROMOUS FISH, INCLUDING SALMON, RIVER HERRING, AND STRIPED BASS. THESE SPECIES ARE IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL LINKS IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS, AND MANY SUSTAIN VALUABLE FISHERIES. MANY POPULATIONS ARE THREATENED OR ENDANGERED, SO THERE IS SIGNIFICANT INTEREST IN UNDERSTANDING HOW ANADROMOUS SPECIES ARE AFFECTED BY CHANGING CLIMATE CONDITIONS. WE WILL ASSESS THE PHENOLOGICAL INDICES POTENTIAL FOR PROVIDING EARLY WARNING FOR KEY PHENOLOGICAL SHIFTS. VISUALIZATION TOOLS FOR PHENOLOGICAL SERIES OF GEOSPATIAL DATA. COMMUNICATING TEMPORAL PROPERTIES ACROSS SPATIAL FIELDS CAN BE CHALLENGING. WITH INPUT FROM STAKEHOLDERS, DATA PRODUCTS WILL BE DEVELOPED TO VISUALIZE AND COMMUNICATE THE PHENOLOGICAL INDICES. OUR PRODUCTS WILL BE COMMUNICATED THROUGH THESE TOOLS AND DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE PO DAAC.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX16AG59G  
Tuesday, April 25, 2017
$498,292.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
CARBON CYCLING WITHIN COASTAL CONTINENTAL MARGINS IS FUNDAMENTALLY IMPORTANT TO THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE. COASTAL OCEANS CONTRIBUTE ABOUT 1/3 OF THE TOTAL MARINE PRODUCTIVITY ACROSS THE GLOBE (OR ABOUT 16 PG (1PG =1E15G)). THEY RECEIVE ABOUT 1PG FROM TERRESTRIAL DISCHARGE VIA RIVERS. THEY CONTRIBUTE ABOUT HALF OF THE TOTAL GLOBAL OCEAN NEW PRODUCTION (3.6PG). THESE ARE BIG NUMBERS YET WE STILL DO NOT KNOW WHETHER COASTAL MARGINS ARE NET SOURCES OR SINKS FOR CARBON. THERE ARE FOUR COMPONENTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC). THE FIRST THREE CARBON FRACTIONS (POC, PIC, AND DOC) CAN BE ESTIMATED USING OPTICAL PROXIES WHILE THE FOURTH (DIC, ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION) IS BEST MEASURED CHEMICALLY. THERE ARE FEW COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT ASSESS ALL OF THESE COMPONENTS. THIS PROPOSAL IS A SUCCESSOR PROPOSAL FOR THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS), AN 18-YEAR TRANSECT TIME SERIES ACROSS THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) USING FERRIES, SMALL RESEARCH VESSELS, AND GLIDERS TO MEASURE ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE. DURING SEVERAL ANOMALOUSLY WET YEARS, GNATS DOCUMENTED SOME FUNDAMENTAL SHIFTS IN THE GOM SUCH AS SIGNIFICANT DROPS IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION (ASSOCIATED WITH POC AND PIC PRODUCTION) AND THE APPEARANCE OF UNEXPECTED HIGHLY SCATTERING PARTICLES<0.2UM DIAMETER (HENCE DOC), WELL OUT TO SEA. WE HAVE ALSO OBSERVED WINTER DIC CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS THE GOM, LOW ENOUGH THAT THE ENTIRE GOM CAN SHOW LOW ARAGONITE SATURATION VALUES<1.6 LEVELS THAT ARE KNOWN TO BE INHIBITORY TO CALCIFICATION BY CERTAIN MARINE ORGANISMS. HERE WE ARE PROPOSING TO (A) CONTINUE THE GNATS FOR THREE YEARS WITH EIGHT CRUISES PER YEAR (SIX ABOARD A COMMERCIAL FERRY AND TWO ABOARD A SMALL RESEARCH VESSEL) FOCUSING ON THE FOUR PARTS OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE, (B) FURTHER VALIDATE SATELLITE OCEAN-COLOR SENSORS FOR RADIANCE AND OTHER PRODUCTS IN THIS COMPLEX OPTICAL ENVIRONMENT, (C) MAKE GNATS INTO AN EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATORY BY TESTING A RANGE OF HYPOTHESES ON CHANGING PRODUCTIVITY AND THE SOURCE OF SUBMICRON SCATTERING PARTICLES, (D) CONSTRUCT CARBON CYCLE MODELS OF THE GOM BASED ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL FLUXES AND ALLOMETRIC SCALING PERFORMING MODEL INTERCOMPARISON AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING USING THE MODELS, AND (E) CONTINUE A COLLABORATION IN WHICH WE ARE DEPLOYING AN ABOVE-WATER LIDAR (LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING) FROM THE GNATS, ASSESSING THE LIDAR'S ABILITY TO PROFILE OPTICAL PROPERTIES DEEPER THAN ONE OPTICAL DEPTH. WE INCLUDE PREVIOUS RESULTS DEMONSTRATING THAT WE CAN TRACK WATER MASSES USING TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY, THEN DOCUMENT CO-VARYING CHANGES IN POC (BASED ON AN OPTICAL PROXY TO PARTICLE BACKSCATTERING), OXYGEN, AND CHLOROPHYLL IN THESE WATER MASSES; THESE ALLOW THE ESTIMATION OF NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION (NPP) AND NET COMMUNITY PRODUCTION. WE ALSO SHOW HOW ALLOMETRIC SCALING MODELS CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THESE ESTIMATIONS. WE ARE REQUESTING FUNDS TO UPGRADE ONE OF OUR SLOCUM GLIDERS TO CARRY A SUNA NITRATE SENSOR THAT WILL ALLOW US TO MORE ACCURATELY ESTIMATE NITRATE DEPLETION AND NPP. THESE GLIDER RESULTS WILL ALLOW US TO BETTER DISCERN AND QUANTIFY WHETHER THE GOM IS A NET SOURCE OR SINK FOR CARBON. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS PROVIDES CRITICAL INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING ALL ASPECTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE IN THIS TEMPERATE COASTAL REGION: CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY, HYDROGRAPHY, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS, PLUS POTENTIAL CHANGES DUE TO OCEAN ACIDIFICATION. SUCH RESULTS WILL PROVIDE INSIGHTS TO OTHER TEMPERATE COASTAL ZONES AROUND THE GLOBE. SIMPLY PUT, A SUSTAINED, COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH, SUCH AS THE KIND WE ARE PROPOSING HERE, IS THE OPTIMAL WAY FOR NASA TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE IN THIS COMPLEX COASTA
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX17AI77G  
Wednesday, April 19, 2017
$9,499.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE OVERARCHING OBJECTIVE OF THE PROPOSED FIELD CAMPAIGN IS TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LAND-OCEAN INTERACTIONS IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN, AND SPECIFICALLY EXAMINE THE EFFECT OF THESE CHANGES ON RIVER-DOMINATED COASTAL OCEAN BIOLOGY, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND BIODIVERSITY. OVER THE PAST 100 YEARS, HIGH NORTHERN LATITUDE REGIONS HAVE EXPERIENCED MORE RAPID WARMING THAN ELSEWHERE ON EARTH. THIS TREND IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE OVER THE NEXT CENTURY AND AS SUCH, ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS HAVE BECOME AN INTENSE FOCUS OF CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH. IN ADDITION TO THIS REGION BEING CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO OUR UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING OF KEY BIOLOGICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES, AND SHORT-TERM CLIMATE FORCINGS AND FEEDBACK LOOPS THAT POTENTIALLY ACCELERATE LOCAL WARMING, ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC IS INCREASINGLY AFFECTING SOCIETY IN A VARIETY OF WAYS. WHILE THERE IS A LEGACY OF RESEARCH ON THE NATURE AND EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC, MAJOR GAPS REMAIN IN UNDERSTANDING THE VULNERABILITY, RESPONSE AND RESILIENCE OF ARCTIC COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS TO CONTINUED ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCES. WITH A FOCUS ON COASTAL OCEAN PROCESSES, THE PROPOSED CAMPAIGN WILL PROVIDE A CRITICALLY NEEDED LINKAGE BETWEEN PAST FIELD CAMPAIGNS FOCUSING ON THE ARCTIC OPEN OCEAN ENVIRONMENT, SUCH AS NASA'S ICESCAPE PROJECT, AND OTHER PAST AND ON-GOING FIELD ACTIVITIES FOCUSING ON ARCTIC RIVER PROCESSES, CHEMISTRY AND FLUXES. A KEY COMPONENT OF THE PROPOSED FIELD CAMPAIGN WILL BE THE USE OF SPATIALTEMPORAL INFORMATION PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM REMOTELY-SENSED DATA TO EXTEND OBSERVATIONS TO LARGER SPATIAL AND LONGER TEMPORAL SCALES, AND THE PROPOSED INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS WITH COUPLED PHYSICAL-BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING IMPACTS OF FUTURE PRESSURES ON ARCTIC, COASTAL OCEAN, BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. AT THE INCEPTION OF OUR SCOPING EFFORTS, THE STUDY REGIONS WILL BE THE CONTINENTAL MARGIN AND COASTAL OCEAN OFF THE MACKENZIE AND YUKON RIVERS. THESE TWO DRAINAGE BASINS PROVIDE THE LARGEST DISCHARGE AND THE LARGEST FLUXES OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE CARBON TO THE ARCTIC OCEAN FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT. FURTHER, THESE TENTATIVE LOCATIONS MINIMIZE THE TEMPORAL GAP WITH THE NASA-FUNDED ICESCAPE (CURRENTLY IN ITS FINAL STAGES) WHILE COORDINATING AND LEVERAGING DIRECTLY WITH THE UPCOMING MULTIDISCIPLINARY NASA FIELD CAMPAIGN ABOVE (ARCTIC-BOREAL VULNERABILITY EXPERIMENT) THAT AIMS AT BETTER UNDERSTANDING DRIVERS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN ARCTIC TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS. THROUGH ORGANIZATION OF TWO DEDICATED WORKSHOPS AND PRESENTATIONS AT NASA OCEAN BIOLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY (OBB) SCIENCE TEAM MEETINGS, THE PROPOSED SCOPING STUDY WILL ENGAGE THE BROADER SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AND INVITE PARTICIPATION OF EXPERTS FROM A WIDE RANGE OF DISCIPLINES (INCLUDING PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES), TO REFINE OUR RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE DETAILED RESEARCH STRATEGIES NEEDED TO ATTAIN THESE OBJECTIVES. THE SCOPING STUDY WILL ALSO INVOLVE INTERAGENCY AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIONS. THE DELIVERABLE WILL BE A COMPREHENSIVE REPORT TO NASA OUTLINING THE MAJOR SCIENTIFIC QUESTIONS, AND DEVELOPING THE INITIAL STUDY DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPT FOR THIS NEW NASA OBB FIELD CAMPAIGN. THE PROPOSED CAMPAIGN IS STRONGLY RELEVANT TO NASA'S OBB OVERARCHING PROGRAMMATIC GOALS, AND IS PARTICULARLY TIMELY AS IT CORRESPONDS WITH THE RELEASE OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE ARCTIC REGION IN MAY 2013, WHICH INCLUDES AS ITS PRIORITY PROTECTION OF THE ARCTIC ENVIRONMENT AND THE CALL TO INCREASE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE ARCTIC THROUGH SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AD76G  
Tuesday, January 10, 2017
$322,143.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE ONGOING CHANGES IN THE CIRCULATION OF THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC ARE, WITHOUT QUESTION, IMPACTING ITS MARINE ECOSYSTEMS, YET OUR QUANTITATIVE UNDERSTANDING OF SUCH ECOLOGICAL CHANGE(S) REMAINS MEAGER. A FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGE IS TO PREDICT WHETHER NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION (NETPP) IN THIS REGION WILL INCREASE OR DECREASE UNDER CHANGING NORTHERLY AND SOUTHERLY ADVECTIVE FLOWS. HERE, WE SUGGEST THAT THE BALANCE WILL DEPEND ON REGIONAL BOTTOM-UP DRIVERS (E.G., STRATIFICATION, NUTRIENT AND LIGHT AVAILABILITY, COMMUNITY COMPOSITION) AND TOP-DOWN DRIVERS (E.G., GRAZING). A GROWING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SURFACE AND DEEP OVERFLOWS, COUNTERFLOWS, AND RECIRCULATION PATTERNS WITHIN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC IS EMERGING THAT INDICATES STRONGER INFLUENCES OF THE ATLANTIC SURFACE WATER (AW) AND ARCTIC-ORIGIN WATER (ARW) ON EACH OTHER AND ON THE AVERAGE CIRCULATION PATTERNS WITHIN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT. WE DEFINE THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AS THE REGION ENCOMPASSED BY THE GREENLAND-ICELAND-NORWEGIAN (GIN), IRMINGER AND LABRADOR SEAS, WHERE WARMER AND SALTIER AW LADEN WITH NUTRIENTS, PLANKTON AND DETRITUS MOVES NORTH IN MULTIPLE BRANCHES INTO THE LABRADOR SEA, INTO THE GIN SEAS AND, EVENTUALLY, INTO THE ARCTIC OCEAN. FRESHER AND COLDER ARW WITH SEA ICE, LOW NUTRIENTS, LOW PLANKTON AND HIGH COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER MOVES SOUTHWARDS ALONG THE EDGE OF THE EASTERN GREENLAND AND WESTERN LABRADOR SEAS AND INTO THE N. ATLANTIC. HERE, WE WILL FOCUS ON THE BALANCE OF NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AS AFFECTED BY (I) ADVECTIVE LOSSES AND GAINS WITHIN THIS REGION AT LARGE-SCALES INTERACTION WITH RESPECT TO BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN THE TEMPERATE N. ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC OCEANS; (II) LATERAL AND VERTICAL EXPORT PRODUCTION WITHIN SUB-REGIONS OF THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AT INTERMEDIATE SCALES; AND (III) ADVECTIVE AND LOCAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC REGION. OUR QUESTIONS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: (Q1) WHAT BOTTOM-UP (PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL) FACTORS CONTROL THE NETPP LEVELS IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC, WHERE AND WHEN? (Q2) WHAT ARE THE CONTROLS OF SEASONAL AND SUB-SEASONAL VARIABILITIES AND TRENDS IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC? (Q3) WHAT IS THE BALANCE BETWEEN LOCAL AND ADVECTED NETPP IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC DURING THE GROWTH SEASON? WE PROPOSE TO USE A HIERARCHY OF MODELS INCLUDING A FULL 3D, COUPLED, BIOGEOCHEMICAL-PHYSICAL MODEL AT REGIONAL SCALE (SINMOD) AND A SPECIALIZED 1D SATELLITE OCEAN COLOR MODEL FOR PHYTOPLANKTON NETPP (UQAR-TAKUVIK), BOTH OF WHICH ARE EXCEPTIONALLY WELL TUNED TO HIGH LATITUDES. MODEL SIMULATIONS WILL BE DONE IN CONCERT WITH MINING HISTORICAL FIELD AND SATELLITE DATA TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF NETPP AND ITS PHYSICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONTROLS OVER AN AVERAGE ANNUAL CYCLE IN THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC. OUR RESULTS WILL SHED LIGHT IF THE MAGNITUDE OF NETPP WILL INCREASE OR DECREASE DUE TO ENHANCED STRATIFICATION (WARMER AW OR FRESHER ARW CONDITIONS, LESS NUTRIENTS) AND GRAZING (IMMIGRATING OR RETURNING ZOOPLANKTON). ALTERNATIVELY, LESS SEA ICE IN FRAM STRAIT AND THE GREENLAND SEA MAY RESULT IN MORE AND EARLIER OPEN WATERS AND LESS STRATIFICATION THAT MAY LEAD TO HIGHER NETPP VALUES, AS HAS BEEN PREDICTED NORTH AND EAST OF SPITSBERGEN. A NORTHWARDS SHIFT IN NETPP DUE TO ENHANCED AW ADVECTION IS EXPECTED. OUR PROJECT RESPONDS TO THE ROSES 2015 A.3 OBB (AMENDED) ACTIVITY 2.3 RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE GALWAY STATEMENT: NORTH ATLANTIC-ARCTIC OCEANOGRAPHIC PROCESSES BY FOCUSING ON THE EXCHANGES ACROSS, AND PROCESSES WITHIN, THE SUBARCTIC ATLANTIC AND THEIR EFFECT ON NETPP, IN A REGION LOCATED NORTH OF THE NASA-SPONSORED EXPORTS SELECTED N. ATLANTIC FIELD SITE, WITH A TEAM OF CANADIAN, DANISH, NORWEGIAN AND US RESEARCHERS. OUR PROJECT WILL OPENLY SHARE ALL FIELD DATA ASSEMBLED AS WELL AS PROMOTE RESEARCHER MOBILITY BY INCLUDING A POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW AND A PART-TIME GRADUATE STUDENT, BOTH OF WHOM WILL GAIN INTERNATIONAL NETWORKING AND EXPERIENCE
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX17AB99G  
Friday, December 30, 2016
$146,005.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
I PROPOSE TO MAINTAIN THE ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; OTHERWISE KNOWN AS CALCIUM CARBONATE). TO DATE, THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER-INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS (SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL A VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS ~350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT OVER THE YEARS AND CHLOROPHYLL ANALYSES ARE CHEAPER TO RUN). THE MERGED TWO-BAND/THREE-BAND ALGORITHM IS FUNDAMENTALLY A CASE I ALGORITHM; THAT IS, IT IS DESIGNED FOR AREAS WHERE SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS,RIVER-BORN SEDIMENTS OR COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACT OCEAN OPTICAL PROPERTIES. THE PIC ALGORITHM ACCOUNTS FOR 78% OF THE VARIANCE IN FIELD-MEASURED PIC AND THE STANDARD ERROR OF PIC DETERMINATIONS (COMPARED TO SHIPBOARD VALIDATION DATA) IS +/-0.08MMOL M^-3, COMPARABLE TO THE PIC CONCENTRATIONS FOUND IN OLIGOTROPHIC GYRES. BUT THERE IS STILL CONSIDERABLE ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE PIC ALGORITHM. THESE STATISTICS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED IF THE SATELLITE DATA ARE BINNED IN SPACE AND TIME (RELATIVELY EASY TO DO WITH SATELLITE DATA, BUT THIS OBVIOUSLY COMPROMISES TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTION). IN CASE I WATERS, ERRORS IN THE ALGORITHM RESULT FROM: (A) THE CALCITE-SPECIFIC BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION ATTRIBUTED TO COCCOLITHOPHORES; (B) ERRORS IN THE CHLOROPHYLL-DEPENDENT BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTED TO PHYTOPLANKTON; AND (C) PRESENCE OF OTHER SCATTERING MINERALS, SUCH AS BIOGENIC SILICA FROM DIATOM FRUSTULES, WHICH DO NOT SCATTER AS INTENSELY AS PIC, BUT NONETHELESS CAN CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANT OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING. I PROPOSE TO CONTINUE EVALUATING NEW DATA SETS FOR PIC (GENERATED FROM OTHER ONGOING STUDIES) IN ORDER TO REVISE PIC ALGORITHM COEFFICIENTS AND LOOK-UP TABLES. REGARDING THE FIRST SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL FOCUS ON BETTER DEFINING THE BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION OF CALCITE COCCOLITHS GEOGRAPHICALLY. IMPROVEMENTS IN OUR ESTIMATE OF THE BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION FOR CALCITE COCCOLITHS WILL SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE THE ACCURACY OF THE PIC ALGORITHM. REGARDING THE SECOND SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL EXPERIMENT WITH NEW ALGORITHMS FOR DERIVING CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION (E.G., THE REFLECTANCE DIFFERENCING ALGORITHM OF HU ET AL., 2012). THIS WILL PROVIDE A BETTER DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ASSOCIATED WITH CHLOROPHYLL CONTAINING PHYTOPLANKTON, WHICH, IN TURN, WILL ALLOW IMPROVED ESTIMATES OF PIC. THIS WORK WILL BE IN COLLABORATION WITH DR. CHUAMIN HU (UNIV. SOUTH FLORIDA). REGARDING THE THIRD SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL CORRECT FOR THE PRESENCE OF BIOGENIC SILICA, WHICH IS UBIQUITOUS OVER THE GLOBE AND A POTENTIALLY IMPORTANT LIGHT SCATTERING CONTRIBUTOR IN ITS OWN RIGHT. MOREOVER, BIOGENIC SILICA CAN NOW BE ESTIMATED REMOTELY (BALCH ET AL., 2010). ACCOUNTING FOR THIS COMPONENT OF THE BACKSCATTERING SIGNAL WILL ALLOW BETTER ESTIMATES OF PIC BACKSCATTERING AND DERIVATION OF PIC CONCENTRATION. I WILL COMPARE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION FOR BOTH MODIS AQUA AND MODIS TERRA SATELLITES AND PERFORM FULL ERROR ANALYSES OF THE REVISED ALGORITHM IN THE INTEREST OF PROVIDING SEAMLESS, CLIMATE-QUALITY, PIC DATA. ALTHOUGH THE FOCUS OF THIS PROPOSAL IS ON CONTINUITY OF THE TERRA AND AQUA PIC PRODUCT, THE ALGORITHM CAN ALSO BE APPLIED TO VIIRS IMAGERY. DR. HOWARD GORDON (UNIV. MIAMI) WILL BE COLLABORATING ON THE OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF THE REVISED PIC ALGORITHM. THE OUTCOME OF THIS ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE WORK WILL BE AN IMPROVED PIC PRODUCT WITH LOWER RMS ERROR.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ41G  
Monday, December 26, 2016
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE OVERARCHING OBJECTIVE OF THE PROPOSED FIELD CAMPAIGN IS TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LAND-OCEAN INTERACTIONS IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN, AND SPECIFICALLY EXAMINE THE EFFECT OF THESE CHANGES ON RIVER-DOMINATED COASTAL OCEAN BIOLOGY, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND BIODIVERSITY. OVER THE PAST 100 YEARS, HIGH NORTHERN LATITUDE REGIONS HAVE EXPERIENCED MORE RAPID WARMING THAN ELSEWHERE ON EARTH. THIS TREND IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE OVER THE NEXT CENTURY AND AS SUCH, ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS HAVE BECOME AN INTENSE FOCUS OF CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH. IN ADDITION TO THIS REGION BEING CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO OUR UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING OF KEY BIOLOGICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES, AND SHORT-TERM CLIMATE FORCINGS AND FEEDBACK LOOPS THAT POTENTIALLY ACCELERATE LOCAL WARMING, ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC IS INCREASINGLY AFFECTING SOCIETY IN A VARIETY OF WAYS. WHILE THERE IS A LEGACY OF RESEARCH ON THE NATURE AND EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC, MAJOR GAPS REMAIN IN UNDERSTANDING THE VULNERABILITY, RESPONSE AND RESILIENCE OF ARCTIC COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS TO CONTINUED ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCES. WITH A FOCUS ON COASTAL OCEAN PROCESSES, THE PROPOSED CAMPAIGN WILL PROVIDE A CRITICALLY NEEDED LINKAGE BETWEEN PAST FIELD CAMPAIGNS FOCUSING ON THE ARCTIC OPEN OCEAN ENVIRONMENT, SUCH AS NASA'S ICESCAPE PROJECT, AND OTHER PAST AND ON-GOING FIELD ACTIVITIES FOCUSING ON ARCTIC RIVER PROCESSES, CHEMISTRY AND FLUXES. A KEY COMPONENT OF THE PROPOSED FIELD CAMPAIGN WILL BE THE USE OF SPATIALTEMPORAL INFORMATION PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM REMOTELY-SENSED DATA TO EXTEND OBSERVATIONS TO LARGER SPATIAL AND LONGER TEMPORAL SCALES, AND THE PROPOSED INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS WITH COUPLED PHYSICAL-BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING IMPACTS OF FUTURE PRESSURES ON ARCTIC, COASTAL OCEAN, BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. AT THE INCEPTION OF OUR SCOPING EFFORTS, THE STUDY REGIONS WILL BE THE CONTINENTAL MARGIN AND COASTAL OCEAN OFF THE MACKENZIE AND YUKON RIVERS. THESE TWO DRAINAGE BASINS PROVIDE THE LARGEST DISCHARGE AND THE LARGEST FLUXES OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE CARBON TO THE ARCTIC OCEAN FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT. FURTHER, THESE TENTATIVE LOCATIONS MINIMIZE THE TEMPORAL GAP WITH THE NASA-FUNDED ICESCAPE (CURRENTLY IN ITS FINAL STAGES) WHILE COORDINATING AND LEVERAGING DIRECTLY WITH THE UPCOMING MULTIDISCIPLINARY NASA FIELD CAMPAIGN ABOVE (ARCTIC-BOREAL VULNERABILITY EXPERIMENT) THAT AIMS AT BETTER UNDERSTANDING DRIVERS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN ARCTIC TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS. THROUGH ORGANIZATION OF TWO DEDICATED WORKSHOPS AND PRESENTATIONS AT NASA OCEAN BIOLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY (OBB) SCIENCE TEAM MEETINGS, THE PROPOSED SCOPING STUDY WILL ENGAGE THE BROADER SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AND INVITE PARTICIPATION OF EXPERTS FROM A WIDE RANGE OF DISCIPLINES (INCLUDING PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES), TO REFINE OUR RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE DETAILED RESEARCH STRATEGIES NEEDED TO ATTAIN THESE OBJECTIVES. THE SCOPING STUDY WILL ALSO INVOLVE INTERAGENCY AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIONS. THE DELIVERABLE WILL BE A COMPREHENSIVE REPORT TO NASA OUTLINING THE MAJOR SCIENTIFIC QUESTIONS, AND DEVELOPING THE INITIAL STUDY DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPT FOR THIS NEW NASA OBB FIELD CAMPAIGN. THE PROPOSED CAMPAIGN IS STRONGLY RELEVANT TO NASA'S OBB OVERARCHING PROGRAMMATIC GOALS, AND IS PARTICULARLY TIMELY AS IT CORRESPONDS WITH THE RELEASE OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE ARCTIC REGION IN MAY 2013, WHICH INCLUDES AS ITS PRIORITY PROTECTION OF THE ARCTIC ENVIRONMENT AND THE CALL TO INCREASE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE ARCTIC THROUGH SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AD76G  
Friday, December 23, 2016
$90,419.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE EARTHS OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS ARE COMPRISED OF A MYRIAD OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THAT CREATE ADAPTIVE AND RESILIENT ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES. THESE ECOSYSTEMS ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE PLANETS BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES SUCH AS CARBON, NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, SILICA, IRON, ETC., WHICH, IN TURN, ARE COUPLED TO AND INFLUENCED BY THE PLANETS CLIMATE; THE OCEANS BIOLOGICAL CARBON PUMP IS ONE SUCH CYCLE SEE VOLK AND HOFFERT, 1985. THE STRENGTH AND EFFICIENCY OF THE BIOLOGICAL PUMP ARE CONTROLLED BY PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON POC PRODUCTION NEAR THE SURFACE AND ITS TROPHIC REMINERALIZATION WITH DEPTH SEE BUESSELER 2007; NEUER 2002, WHICH IS EXTENSIVELY REGULATED BY THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES PFTS. WE PROPOSE A BIOOPTICAL LABORATORY STUDY TO DEVELOP A MORE EXTENSIVE PHYTOPLANKTON SPECTRAL LIBRARY THAT WILL BE COUPLED WITH SATELLITE RADIANCE PRODUCTS AND EXISTING TIME SERIES DATASETS OF PFTS TO IMPROVE OUR ABILITY TO OBSERVE AND PREDICT CHANGES IN PFTS IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CONSEQUENT IMPACTS ON THE BIOLOGICAL CARBON PUMP. SPECIFICALLY WE WILL: 1. COMPARE PHYTOPLANKTON SPECTRAL SHAPE PFT ALGORITHMS SEE PHYDOTAX, PALACIOS, 2015 AND HPLC BASED PIGMENT DISTRIBUTIONS OF PFTS WITH DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF PFT DISTRIBUTIONS AT OCEAN TIME SERIES SITES. 2. CONDUCT CONTROLLED LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS FOR EACH MAJOR PFT QUANTIFYING CHANGES IN OPTICAL FINGERPRINTS, PIGMENT CONTENT AND CHL A AND POC NORMALIZED PIGMENT RATIOS IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE VARIABLES IN MULTI STRESSOR EXPERIMENTS. 3. REFINE EXISTING PFT ALGORITHMS BY INCORPORATING NEW MEASUREMENTS OF CHANGES IN OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PIGMENT CONTENT OF CULTURES GROWN UNDER CONDITIONS REPRESENTATIVE OF FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE. 4. RE COMPARE THE ALGORITHMS DERIVED IN TASK 2 AND 3 ABOVE TO THE TIME SERIES OBSERVATIONS TO ASSESS IF THERE IS IMPROVEMENT IN AGREEMENT BETWEEN IN SITU OBSERVATIONS AND SATELLITE PRODUCTS AND THE ABILITY OF THESE NEW ALGORITHMS TO DETECT OBSERVED ECOSYSTEM CHANGES. WE WILL LEVERAGE ACCESS TO THE FACILITIES OF THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR MARINE ALGAE AND MICROBIOTA NCMA AT BIGELOW LABORATORY AND GROW REPRESENTATIVES OF EACH PFT IN SEMI CONTINUOUS CULTURES IN CONDITIONS REPRESENTATIVE OF PRESENT AND FUTURE OCEAN CONDITIONS. MANNINOS GROUP WILL COLLECT A SPECTRAL LIBRARY OF THESE TAXA THAT WILL CONSIST OF HYPERSPECTRAL UV VIS ABSORBANCE AND MULTI SPECTRAL AND ANGULAR SCATTERING PROPERTIES AND APPLY RADIATIVE TRANSFER NUMERICAL MODELING TO DERIVE HYPERSPECTRAL UV V IS REFLECTANCE. THIS EXPERIMENTAL SPECTRAL LIBRARY WILL BE USED TO REFINE AND EVALUATE THE PHYDOTAX APPROACH SUCH AS PALACIOS FOR OUR OPEN OCEAN STUDY REGIONS AND OTHER SPECTRAL SHAPE BASED ALGORITHMS FOR RETRIEVAL OF PFTS FROM THE PACE AND OTHER HYPERSPECTRAL AND MULTISPECTRAL OCEAN COLOR SENSORS. WE WILL VALIDATE THESE PFT APPROACHES USING DATA FROM THE BERMUDA ATLANTIC TIME SERIES STUDY BATS SITE, WHICH HAS A GREATER THAN 20 YEAR RECORD OF MONTHLY OPTICAL SCATTERING, ABSORPTION AND REMOTE SENSING REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS SUCH AS BERMUDA BIOOPTICS PROGRAM, HPLC PIGMENTS SUCH AS LOMAS 2013, AND AN APPROXIMATELY 20 YEAR RECORD OF PFTS, FOR PICO AND NANOPHYTOPLANKTON SUCH AS WALLHEAD 2013, AND HAS BEEN SHOWN TO EXPERIENCE STRONG VARIABILITY IN SEASONAL FORCING AS WELL AS LONGER TERM CLIMATE OSCILLATIONS FOR EXAMPLE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION. WE WILL ALSO USE THE ATLANTIC ZONE MONITORING PROGRAM PHYTOPLANKTON TIME SERIES FROM THE SCOTIAN SHELF TO PROVIDE A CONTRAST IN PFT ABUNDANCE AND PHYSICAL REGIME. THESE TIME SERIES WILL ALLOW US TO INVESTIGATE BOTH TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. THIS PROPOSAL RESPONDS TO SECTION A.3 OCEAN BIOLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, SUBSECTION 2.1 RESEARCH IN OCEAN ECOLOGY. SPECIFICALLY IT FITS THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PACE SCIENCE MISSION AND WILL PROVIDE MUCH NEEDED INFORMATION ON IMPROVED PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPE ALGORITHMS.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX17AB90G  
Monday, October 24, 2016
$126,250.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
THE GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SUPPORT THE PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON PIC ALGORITHM WITHIN THE SUOMI NATIONAL POLAR ORBITING PARTNERSHIP SUOMI NPP. THIS ALGORITHM IS CRITICAL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORES CALCIFYING PHYTOPLANKTON AND UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THESE ORGANISMS, WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL FOR THE FUNCTIONING OF THE OCEAN BIOLOGICAL PUMP. THIS WORK HAS THREE CENTRAL OBJECTIVES, A, PIC ALGORITHMIMPROVEMENTS: THERE ARE SEVERAL SOURCES OF ERROR WITHIN THE PIC ALGORITHM THAT NEED IMPROVEMENT, DERIVATION OF THE DIFFUSE ATTENUATION OF EFFICIENT USED IN THE MODEL, DETERMINATION OF THE COCCOLITH BACKSCATTERING CROSS SECTION AND DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTABLE TO PHYTOPLANKTON CHLOROPHYLL. THIS PROPOSED WORK WILL INVESTIGATE ALL THREE ASPECTS WHICH WILL ALLOW FOR AN IMPROVED VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM. THIS WORK ALSO WILL RESULT IN AN UPDATED PIC ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT ATBD. B, PIC ALGORITHM EVALUATION, THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM IN THE SUOMI NPP ERA IS THE STILL-LIMITED SEA TRUTH PIC DATA TAKEN SINCE THE LAUNCH OF NPP IN OCTOBER, 2011, AVAILABLE FOR PRODUCT EVALUATION. THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS 350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT FOR SEVERAL MORE DECADES. TO DATE, THERE ARE 74 VALIDATED SHIP PIC MATCH-UPS WITH VIIRS PIC ESTIMATES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE A MODEST FIELD VALIDATION EFFORT 240 STATIONS WITHIN THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC TO AUGMENT THE FIELD PIC DATA AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATION OF THE VIIRS PIC PRODUCT. WE PROPOSE TO PARTICIPATE IN THREE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE SUOMI NPP MISSION. THIS WORK WILL PROVIDE COLLECTION ANALYSIS OF OTHER VARIABLES, TOO, CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON POC, INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES IOPS E.G. PARTICLE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING AND APPARENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AOPS FOR VALIDATING VIIRS NORMALIZED WATER LEAVING RADIANCE MEASUREMENTS, ALL IN SUPPORT OF THEIR EVALUATION AS VIIRS EDRS AND CDRS. NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR THE FIELD WORK, ALL THREE CRUISES ARE PART OF THE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT PROGRAM, LONG SUPPORTED BY THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE U.K. C, CONTINUITY OF THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT, THE OVERARCHING GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SEAMLESSLY TRANSITION THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT FROM THE EOS ERA TO THE SUOMI NPP ERA AND ULTIMATELY TO THE JPSS AND PACE ERAS. CRITICAL IN THIS GOAL IS DEFINING THE ERROR BUDGETS OF THE VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM FOR COMPARISON TO THE SAME PRODUCT DERIVED FROM MODIS AND TRACEABLE TO THE ATBD. THIS WORK WILL BE WELL COORDINATED WITH THE OCEAN SCIENCE INVESTIGATOR LED PROCESSING SYSTEMS OCEAN SIPS. THIS PROPOSAL INCLUDES A REQUEST FOR A POST DOC IN ORDER TO BEGIN TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF SCIENTISTS FOR COCCOLITHOPHORE BIO-OPTICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL WORK IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC OCEAN COLOR PRODUCT. SIGNIFICANCE, THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS, 1,CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2, CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH 1, DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, 2 QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES AND 3 PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. ULTIMATELY, IT WILL ALLOW BETTER EVALUATION OF THE FUTURE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AS IT IS INFLUENCED BY CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ43A  
Friday, October 14, 2016
$142,665.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROJECT WILL CONTINUE THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS) WHICH IS A 35+YEAR, NASA-CENTRIC, FIELD PROGRAM THAT CROSSES THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) TO COLLECT BIO-OPTICAL, HYDROGRAPHICAL, BIOLOGICAL, BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL (INCLUDING CARBON-RELEVANT) DATA FOR USE IN SATELLITE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION STUDIES, AS WELL AS A LONG-TERM TRANSECT TIME SERIES. WE PROPOSE TO USE A COMBINATION OF SATELLITE AND GNATS DATA (SHIPBOARD AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS) TO CONSTRAIN A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE. THE OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT GNATS HAS PROVIDED CRITICAL CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR SEAWIFS, MODIS, AND VIIRS SENSORS, AS WELL AS INSIGHTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC CARBON CYCLE CHANGES IN THE GOM, A SEMI-ENCLOSED SHELF SEA, WITH STRONG LAND-SEA CONNECTIONS VIA 25 SURROUNDING WATERSHEDS. WE DIRECT THIS PROPOSAL TO THE SECOND RESEARCH THEME OF THE NASA ROSES 13 CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE PROGRAM: CARBON DYNAMICS ALONG TERRESTRIAL-AQUATIC INTERFACES, INCLUDING LAND-OCEAN, LAND-FRESHWATER, AND COASTAL OCEAN REGIONS. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GOM, INCLUDING ITS CARBON CYCLE. THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY RELEVANT TO NASA (GIVEN THE NASA-CENTRIC GNATS SAMPLING) AND SECONDARILY TO NOAA, SPECIFICALLY FOR WORK ON PRODUCTIVITY, ALGAL BIOMASS, AND PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF U. S. COASTAL WATERS, AS WELL AS CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF THE NPP/VIIRS SENSOR. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS MEASURES ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE: PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; CALCITE), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC; E.G., CO2, HCO3-, AND CO3=, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO PH AND ALKALINITY). THESE FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE (INCLUDING RESERVOIRS AND FLUXES) PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING THE COASTAL OCEAN, FROM CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY (I.E. POC VARIABILITY THROUGH TIME ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN HYDROGRAPHY, DIFFERENT PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, ETC.), LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT (I.E. DOC AND POC VARIABILITY CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS), AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION (I.E. VARIABILITY IN DIC AND PIC CAUSED BY CHANGES IN CARBONATE SATURATION). SIMPLY PUT, THE ONLY WAY TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE THROUGH A COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH. THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL TO BE USED FOR THE GULF OF MAINE CARBON CYCLE CONSISTS OF SIZE-STRUCTURED CARBON POOLS OF DETRITAL MATERIAL, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES RANGING FROM PICOPLANKTON TO MICROPLANKTON, AND A SIZE-BASED ZOOPLANKTON PREDATOR GROUP. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS WILL BE DETERMINED BY BOTH SIZE AND FUNCTIONAL ROLE, AND THE MODEL WILL BE FORCED BY GOM PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. WE WILL VALIDATE THE MODEL AGAINST GNATS DATA, AND TEST THE ABILITY OF REMOTELY-SENSED PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, COUPLED WITH THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL, TO REPRODUCE THE OBSERVED DYNAMICS. WE WILL THEN USE THE MODEL TO TEST HYPOTHESES REGARDING THE FATE OF CARBON RESULTING FROM CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES SUCH AS INCREASED PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE. ANTICIPATED SCIENTIFIC OUTCOMES FROM THIS WORK WILL BE A) A LONGER DURATION, NASA-CENTRIC, COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT CAN RESOLVE CLIMATOLOGICAL PHENOMENA SPANNING TIME SCALES OF DAYS TO DECADES AND B) A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL BASED ON GNATS THAT USES REMOTELY-SENSED, SHIP AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE DATA TO CONSTRAIN THE MODEL AND TEST HYPOTHESES RELEVANT TO EACH PART OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AM77G  
Thursday, September 1, 2016
$298,678.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROJECT WILL CONTINUE THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS) WHICH IS A 35+YEAR, NASA-CENTRIC, FIELD PROGRAM THAT CROSSES THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) TO COLLECT BIO-OPTICAL, HYDROGRAPHICAL, BIOLOGICAL, BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL (INCLUDING CARBON-RELEVANT) DATA FOR USE IN SATELLITE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION STUDIES, AS WELL AS A LONG-TERM TRANSECT TIME SERIES. WE PROPOSE TO USE A COMBINATION OF SATELLITE AND GNATS DATA (SHIPBOARD AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS) TO CONSTRAIN A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE. THE OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT GNATS HAS PROVIDED CRITICAL CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR SEAWIFS, MODIS, AND VIIRS SENSORS, AS WELL AS INSIGHTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC CARBON CYCLE CHANGES IN THE GOM, A SEMI-ENCLOSED SHELF SEA, WITH STRONG LAND-SEA CONNECTIONS VIA 25 SURROUNDING WATERSHEDS. WE DIRECT THIS PROPOSAL TO THE SECOND RESEARCH THEME OF THE NASA ROSES 13 CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE PROGRAM: CARBON DYNAMICS ALONG TERRESTRIAL-AQUATIC INTERFACES, INCLUDING LAND-OCEAN, LAND-FRESHWATER, AND COASTAL OCEAN REGIONS. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GOM, INCLUDING ITS CARBON CYCLE. THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY RELEVANT TO NASA (GIVEN THE NASA-CENTRIC GNATS SAMPLING) AND SECONDARILY TO NOAA, SPECIFICALLY FOR WORK ON PRODUCTIVITY, ALGAL BIOMASS, AND PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF U. S. COASTAL WATERS, AS WELL AS CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF THE NPP/VIIRS SENSOR. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS MEASURES ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE: PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; CALCITE), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC; E.G., CO2, HCO3-, AND CO3=, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO PH AND ALKALINITY). THESE FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE (INCLUDING RESERVOIRS AND FLUXES) PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING THE COASTAL OCEAN, FROM CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY (I.E. POC VARIABILITY THROUGH TIME ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN HYDROGRAPHY, DIFFERENT PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, ETC.), LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT (I.E. DOC AND POC VARIABILITY CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS), AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION (I.E. VARIABILITY IN DIC AND PIC CAUSED BY CHANGES IN CARBONATE SATURATION). SIMPLY PUT, THE ONLY WAY TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE THROUGH A COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH. THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL TO BE USED FOR THE GULF OF MAINE CARBON CYCLE CONSISTS OF SIZE-STRUCTURED CARBON POOLS OF DETRITAL MATERIAL, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES RANGING FROM PICOPLANKTON TO MICROPLANKTON, AND A SIZE-BASED ZOOPLANKTON PREDATOR GROUP. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS WILL BE DETERMINED BY BOTH SIZE AND FUNCTIONAL ROLE, AND THE MODEL WILL BE FORCED BY GOM PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. WE WILL VALIDATE THE MODEL AGAINST GNATS DATA, AND TEST THE ABILITY OF REMOTELY-SENSED PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, COUPLED WITH THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL, TO REPRODUCE THE OBSERVED DYNAMICS. WE WILL THEN USE THE MODEL TO TEST HYPOTHESES REGARDING THE FATE OF CARBON RESULTING FROM CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES SUCH AS INCREASED PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE. ANTICIPATED SCIENTIFIC OUTCOMES FROM THIS WORK WILL BE A) A LONGER DURATION, NASA-CENTRIC, COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT CAN RESOLVE CLIMATOLOGICAL PHENOMENA SPANNING TIME SCALES OF DAYS TO DECADES AND B) A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL BASED ON GNATS THAT USES REMOTELY-SENSED, SHIP AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE DATA TO CONSTRAIN THE MODEL AND TEST HYPOTHESES RELEVANT TO EACH PART OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AM77G  
Wednesday, August 31, 2016
$120,488.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
I PROPOSE TO MAINTAIN THE ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; OTHERWISE KNOWN AS CALCIUM CARBONATE). TO DATE, THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER-INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS (SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL A VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS ~350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT OVER THE YEARS AND CHLOROPHYLL ANALYSES ARE CHEAPER TO RUN). THE MERGED TWO-BAND/THREE-BAND ALGORITHM IS FUNDAMENTALLY A CASE I ALGORITHM; THAT IS, IT IS DESIGNED FOR AREAS WHERE SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS,RIVER-BORN SEDIMENTS OR COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACT OCEAN OPTICAL PROPERTIES. THE PIC ALGORITHM ACCOUNTS FOR 78% OF THE VARIANCE IN FIELD-MEASURED PIC AND THE STANDARD ERROR OF PIC DETERMINATIONS (COMPARED TO SHIPBOARD VALIDATION DATA) IS +/-0.08MMOL M^-3, COMPARABLE TO THE PIC CONCENTRATIONS FOUND IN OLIGOTROPHIC GYRES. BUT THERE IS STILL CONSIDERABLE ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE PIC ALGORITHM. THESE STATISTICS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED IF THE SATELLITE DATA ARE BINNED IN SPACE AND TIME (RELATIVELY EASY TO DO WITH SATELLITE DATA, BUT THIS OBVIOUSLY COMPROMISES TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTION). IN CASE I WATERS, ERRORS IN THE ALGORITHM RESULT FROM: (A) THE CALCITE-SPECIFIC BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION ATTRIBUTED TO COCCOLITHOPHORES; (B) ERRORS IN THE CHLOROPHYLL-DEPENDENT BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTED TO PHYTOPLANKTON; AND (C) PRESENCE OF OTHER SCATTERING MINERALS, SUCH AS BIOGENIC SILICA FROM DIATOM FRUSTULES, WHICH DO NOT SCATTER AS INTENSELY AS PIC, BUT NONETHELESS CAN CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANT OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING. I PROPOSE TO CONTINUE EVALUATING NEW DATA SETS FOR PIC (GENERATED FROM OTHER ONGOING STUDIES) IN ORDER TO REVISE PIC ALGORITHM COEFFICIENTS AND LOOK-UP TABLES. REGARDING THE FIRST SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL FOCUS ON BETTER DEFINING THE BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION OF CALCITE COCCOLITHS GEOGRAPHICALLY. IMPROVEMENTS IN OUR ESTIMATE OF THE BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION FOR CALCITE COCCOLITHS WILL SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE THE ACCURACY OF THE PIC ALGORITHM. REGARDING THE SECOND SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL EXPERIMENT WITH NEW ALGORITHMS FOR DERIVING CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION (E.G., THE REFLECTANCE DIFFERENCING ALGORITHM OF HU ET AL., 2012). THIS WILL PROVIDE A BETTER DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ASSOCIATED WITH CHLOROPHYLL CONTAINING PHYTOPLANKTON, WHICH, IN TURN, WILL ALLOW IMPROVED ESTIMATES OF PIC. THIS WORK WILL BE IN COLLABORATION WITH DR. CHUAMIN HU (UNIV. SOUTH FLORIDA). REGARDING THE THIRD SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL CORRECT FOR THE PRESENCE OF BIOGENIC SILICA, WHICH IS UBIQUITOUS OVER THE GLOBE AND A POTENTIALLY IMPORTANT LIGHT SCATTERING CONTRIBUTOR IN ITS OWN RIGHT. MOREOVER, BIOGENIC SILICA CAN NOW BE ESTIMATED REMOTELY (BALCH ET AL., 2010). ACCOUNTING FOR THIS COMPONENT OF THE BACKSCATTERING SIGNAL WILL ALLOW BETTER ESTIMATES OF PIC BACKSCATTERING AND DERIVATION OF PIC CONCENTRATION. I WILL COMPARE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION FOR BOTH MODIS AQUA AND MODIS TERRA SATELLITES AND PERFORM FULL ERROR ANALYSES OF THE REVISED ALGORITHM IN THE INTEREST OF PROVIDING SEAMLESS, CLIMATE-QUALITY, PIC DATA. ALTHOUGH THE FOCUS OF THIS PROPOSAL IS ON CONTINUITY OF THE TERRA AND AQUA PIC PRODUCT, THE ALGORITHM CAN ALSO BE APPLIED TO VIIRS IMAGERY. DR. HOWARD GORDON (UNIV. MIAMI) WILL BE COLLABORATING ON THE OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF THE REVISED PIC ALGORITHM. THE OUTCOME OF THIS ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE WORK WILL BE AN IMPROVED PIC PRODUCT WITH LOWER RMS ERROR.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ41G  
Wednesday, August 31, 2016
$194,990.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
THE GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SUPPORT THE PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON PIC ALGORITHM WITHIN THE SUOMI NATIONAL POLAR ORBITING PARTNERSHIP SUOMI NPP. THIS ALGORITHM IS CRITICAL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORES CALCIFYING PHYTOPLANKTON AND UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THESE ORGANISMS, WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL FOR THE FUNCTIONING OF THE OCEAN BIOLOGICAL PUMP. THIS WORK HAS THREE CENTRAL OBJECTIVES, A, PIC ALGORITHMIMPROVEMENTS: THERE ARE SEVERAL SOURCES OF ERROR WITHIN THE PIC ALGORITHM THAT NEED IMPROVEMENT, DERIVATION OF THE DIFFUSE ATTENUATION OF EFFICIENT USED IN THE MODEL, DETERMINATION OF THE COCCOLITH BACKSCATTERING CROSS SECTION AND DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTABLE TO PHYTOPLANKTON CHLOROPHYLL. THIS PROPOSED WORK WILL INVESTIGATE ALL THREE ASPECTS WHICH WILL ALLOW FOR AN IMPROVED VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM. THIS WORK ALSO WILL RESULT IN AN UPDATED PIC ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT ATBD. B, PIC ALGORITHM EVALUATION, THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM IN THE SUOMI NPP ERA IS THE STILL-LIMITED SEA TRUTH PIC DATA TAKEN SINCE THE LAUNCH OF NPP IN OCTOBER, 2011, AVAILABLE FOR PRODUCT EVALUATION. THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS 350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT FOR SEVERAL MORE DECADES. TO DATE, THERE ARE 74 VALIDATED SHIP PIC MATCH-UPS WITH VIIRS PIC ESTIMATES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE A MODEST FIELD VALIDATION EFFORT 240 STATIONS WITHIN THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC TO AUGMENT THE FIELD PIC DATA AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATION OF THE VIIRS PIC PRODUCT. WE PROPOSE TO PARTICIPATE IN THREE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE SUOMI NPP MISSION. THIS WORK WILL PROVIDE COLLECTION ANALYSIS OF OTHER VARIABLES, TOO, CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON POC, INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES IOPS E.G. PARTICLE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING AND APPARENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AOPS FOR VALIDATING VIIRS NORMALIZED WATER LEAVING RADIANCE MEASUREMENTS, ALL IN SUPPORT OF THEIR EVALUATION AS VIIRS EDRS AND CDRS. NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR THE FIELD WORK, ALL THREE CRUISES ARE PART OF THE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT PROGRAM, LONG SUPPORTED BY THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE U.K. C, CONTINUITY OF THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT, THE OVERARCHING GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SEAMLESSLY TRANSITION THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT FROM THE EOS ERA TO THE SUOMI NPP ERA AND ULTIMATELY TO THE JPSS AND PACE ERAS. CRITICAL IN THIS GOAL IS DEFINING THE ERROR BUDGETS OF THE VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM FOR COMPARISON TO THE SAME PRODUCT DERIVED FROM MODIS AND TRACEABLE TO THE ATBD. THIS WORK WILL BE WELL COORDINATED WITH THE OCEAN SCIENCE INVESTIGATOR LED PROCESSING SYSTEMS OCEAN SIPS. THIS PROPOSAL INCLUDES A REQUEST FOR A POST DOC IN ORDER TO BEGIN TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF SCIENTISTS FOR COCCOLITHOPHORE BIO-OPTICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL WORK IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC OCEAN COLOR PRODUCT. SIGNIFICANCE, THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS, 1,CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2, CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH 1, DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, 2 QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES AND 3 PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. ULTIMATELY, IT WILL ALLOW BETTER EVALUATION OF THE FUTURE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AS IT IS INFLUENCED BY CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ43A  
Wednesday, August 31, 2016
$222,228.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS: INTEGRATING THE MODIS PIC PRODUCT INTO THE CLIMATE DATA RECORD THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES THE SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE MODIS ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON ("PIC," OR SUSPENDED CALCIUM CARBONATE). THE ALGORITHM WORKS BY DERIVING PIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING, WHICH IS CONVERTED TO PIC CONCENTRATION. IT DETECTS CACO3 OF COCCOLITHOPHORES DUE TO THEIR RELATIVELY HIGH ABUNDANCE IN THE SEA AND THEIR EXTREMELY HIGH PIC-SPECIFIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING. BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHERS HAVE GENERALLY FOCUSED ON THE MOST VISIBLE, MESOSCALE COCCOLITHOPHORE BLOOMS AT HIGH LATITUDES (REPRESENTING 5% OF TIME AND SPACE), AS COMPARED TO THE MUCH-LESS-ABUNDANT COCCOLITHOPHORE POPULATIONS FOUND IN OTHER ENVIRONMENTS (95% OF TIME AND SPACE). THIS ALGORITHM ALLOWS POPULATIONS TO BE DISCERNED WHETHER THEY ARE IN BLOOMS OR AT LOWER CONCENTRATIONS, HAS BEEN VALIDATED IN EVERY MAJOR OCEAN ON EARTH, AND IS NOW MATURE ENOUGH TO BE ADDRESSED IN THIS "SCIENCE AND DATA ANALYSIS" PROPOSAL. SPECIFICALLY, WE HAVE FIVE OBJECTIVES: 1) DEFINE THE IMPORTANT SCALES OF VARIABILITY OF PIC BY COMPARING RESULTS FROM MODIS AND MISR SENSORS (THE FORMER HAS 1KM RESOLUTION, THE LATTER HAS 275M RESOLUTION), 2) ADDRESS WHETHER PIC HAS SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED OVER THE MODIS MISSIONS, BOTH GLOBALLY AND REGIONALLY (IN THE LONGHURST BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCES), 3) EXAMINE WHETHER THERE HAVE BEEN CHANGES IN THE ANNUAL PHENOLOGY (TIME OF ANNUAL BLOOM AND SENESCENCE) OF COCCOLITHOPHORES, ON A GLOBAL OR REGIONAL BASIS, 4) ASSESS WHETHER THE TURNOVER OF PIC (SET BY PRODUCTION RATES MINUS LOSS RATES ASSOCIATED WITH GRAZING, DISSOLUTION, AND SINKING) HAS VARIED OVER THE PERIOD OF THE MODIS MISSIONS, AND 5) DETERMINE WHETHER THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORE PIC IS SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED BY THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF HYDROGRAPHIC FRONTS AND WHETHER BLOOM TIMING IS BEING AFFECTED BY MAJOR WIND EVENTS AND CHANGES THEREOF. UNDER THE RUBRIC OF "CARBON CYCLE&ECOSYSTEMS," THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPOSED WORK FOCUSES ON THE CYCLING OF CARBON WITHIN THE OCEAN, SPECIFICALLY BY ONE FUNCTIONAL GROUP, THE CALCIFIERS. ELUCIDATION OF LONG-TERM TRENDS AND CHANGES IN PHENOLOGY WILL HAVE STRONG RELEVANCE TO OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, ESPECIALLY GIVEN THE IMPORTANCE OF PIC TO THE RATE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PUMP. OUR APPLICATION OF MISR TO COCCOLITHOPHORE STUDIES WILL ALLOW SMALLER-SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF BLOOMS AT ~1/4 THE SPATIAL SCALE OF MODIS, WHICH WILL PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE VARIOUS PHYSICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE AND TIME. THE ADVENT OF AQUARIUS SALINITY DATA, WHEN COMBINED WITH MODIS SST DATA, NOW ALLOWS THE ESTIMATION OF SEA SURFACE DENSITY AND, USING GRADIENT FINDING ALGORITHMS, WILL ALLOW US TO DETERMINE WHETHER STEEP GRADIENTS IN COCCOLITHOPHORE DENSITY FALL AT MAJOR OCEAN HYDROGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES. VARIOUS OTHER DATA SETS AVAILABLE FROM THE CURRENT CONSTELLATION OF EARTH OBSERVING SATELLITES (E.G., WIND SPEED) WILL ALSO ALLOW BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPORTANCE OF FRONTAL BOUNDARIES AND WIND MIXING (USING AMSR-E; AQUARIUS), AS THEY INFLUENCE GLOBAL CALCITE PRODUCTION IN THE SEA. THIS PROPOSED WORK DIRECTLY FOCUSES ON TWO OF NASA'S FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS IN EARTH SCIENCE: (A) "HOW IS THE GLOBAL EARTH SYSTEM CHANGING?" AND (B) "WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF CHANGE IN THE EARTH SYSTEM, THEIR MAGNITUDES, AND TRENDS?" THE WORK ALSO CONTRIBUTES TO OTHER CRITICAL NASA EARTH SCIENCE GOALS: TO QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS, AND CARBON FLUXES; AND TO UNDERSTAND HOW MARINE ECOSYSTEMS (OF WHICH PIC IS A MAJOR PART OF THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE) ARE CHANGING. THIS RESEARCH WILL YIELD NEW KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE TURNOVER WITHIN THE CARBONATE SYSTEM AS OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS RESPOND TO GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AL92G  
Thursday, August 18, 2016
$15,378.00
1300: Department of Commerce
1333MF: DEPT OF COMMERCE NOAA

B: PURCHASE ORDER
STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES COLLECTED IN BERING SEA IGF::OT::IGF
F999: OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

  DOCWE133F16SE1321     ABL-16210  
Monday, August 15, 2016
$0.00
1400: Department of the Interior
140F01: US FISH AND WILDLIFE SEVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF TITLE: PACIFIC REEFS-SEAWATER MONITORING MOD 1 IS A POP EXTENSION
B526: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- OCEANOLOGICAL

  INF14PX02098  
Wednesday, July 27, 2016
$69,994.00
1300: Department of Commerce
1305M2: DEPT OF COMMERCE NOAA

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF CHEMISTRY AND TOXICITY OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS IN PETROLEUM.
R799: SUPPORT- MANAGEMENT: OTHER

  DOCWC133F16SE1037  
Friday, July 22, 2016
$10,787.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE OVERARCHING OBJECTIVE OF THE PROPOSED FIELD CAMPAIGN IS TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LAND-OCEAN INTERACTIONS IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN, AND SPECIFICALLY EXAMINE THE EFFECT OF THESE CHANGES ON RIVER-DOMINATED COASTAL OCEAN BIOLOGY, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND BIODIVERSITY. OVER THE PAST 100 YEARS, HIGH NORTHERN LATITUDE REGIONS HAVE EXPERIENCED MORE RAPID WARMING THAN ELSEWHERE ON EARTH. THIS TREND IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE OVER THE NEXT CENTURY AND AS SUCH, ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS HAVE BECOME AN INTENSE FOCUS OF CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH. IN ADDITION TO THIS REGION BEING CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO OUR UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING OF KEY BIOLOGICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES, AND SHORT-TERM CLIMATE FORCINGS AND FEEDBACK LOOPS THAT POTENTIALLY ACCELERATE LOCAL WARMING, ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC IS INCREASINGLY AFFECTING SOCIETY IN A VARIETY OF WAYS. WHILE THERE IS A LEGACY OF RESEARCH ON THE NATURE AND EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC, MAJOR GAPS REMAIN IN UNDERSTANDING THE VULNERABILITY, RESPONSE AND RESILIENCE OF ARCTIC COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS TO CONTINUED ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCES. WITH A FOCUS ON COASTAL OCEAN PROCESSES, THE PROPOSED CAMPAIGN WILL PROVIDE A CRITICALLY NEEDED LINKAGE BETWEEN PAST FIELD CAMPAIGNS FOCUSING ON THE ARCTIC OPEN OCEAN ENVIRONMENT, SUCH AS NASA'S ICESCAPE PROJECT, AND OTHER PAST AND ON-GOING FIELD ACTIVITIES FOCUSING ON ARCTIC RIVER PROCESSES, CHEMISTRY AND FLUXES. A KEY COMPONENT OF THE PROPOSED FIELD CAMPAIGN WILL BE THE USE OF SPATIALTEMPORAL INFORMATION PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM REMOTELY-SENSED DATA TO EXTEND OBSERVATIONS TO LARGER SPATIAL AND LONGER TEMPORAL SCALES, AND THE PROPOSED INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS WITH COUPLED PHYSICAL-BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING IMPACTS OF FUTURE PRESSURES ON ARCTIC, COASTAL OCEAN, BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. AT THE INCEPTION OF OUR SCOPING EFFORTS, THE STUDY REGIONS WILL BE THE CONTINENTAL MARGIN AND COASTAL OCEAN OFF THE MACKENZIE AND YUKON RIVERS. THESE TWO DRAINAGE BASINS PROVIDE THE LARGEST DISCHARGE AND THE LARGEST FLUXES OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE CARBON TO THE ARCTIC OCEAN FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT. FURTHER, THESE TENTATIVE LOCATIONS MINIMIZE THE TEMPORAL GAP WITH THE NASA-FUNDED ICESCAPE (CURRENTLY IN ITS FINAL STAGES) WHILE COORDINATING AND LEVERAGING DIRECTLY WITH THE UPCOMING MULTIDISCIPLINARY NASA FIELD CAMPAIGN ABOVE (ARCTIC-BOREAL VULNERABILITY EXPERIMENT) THAT AIMS AT BETTER UNDERSTANDING DRIVERS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN ARCTIC TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS. THROUGH ORGANIZATION OF TWO DEDICATED WORKSHOPS AND PRESENTATIONS AT NASA OCEAN BIOLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY (OBB) SCIENCE TEAM MEETINGS, THE PROPOSED SCOPING STUDY WILL ENGAGE THE BROADER SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AND INVITE PARTICIPATION OF EXPERTS FROM A WIDE RANGE OF DISCIPLINES (INCLUDING PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES), TO REFINE OUR RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE DETAILED RESEARCH STRATEGIES NEEDED TO ATTAIN THESE OBJECTIVES. THE SCOPING STUDY WILL ALSO INVOLVE INTERAGENCY AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIONS. THE DELIVERABLE WILL BE A COMPREHENSIVE REPORT TO NASA OUTLINING THE MAJOR SCIENTIFIC QUESTIONS, AND DEVELOPING THE INITIAL STUDY DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPT FOR THIS NEW NASA OBB FIELD CAMPAIGN. THE PROPOSED CAMPAIGN IS STRONGLY RELEVANT TO NASA'S OBB OVERARCHING PROGRAMMATIC GOALS, AND IS PARTICULARLY TIMELY AS IT CORRESPONDS WITH THE RELEASE OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE ARCTIC REGION IN MAY 2013, WHICH INCLUDES AS ITS PRIORITY PROTECTION OF THE ARCTIC ENVIRONMENT AND THE CALL TO INCREASE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE ARCTIC THROUGH SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AD76G  
Thursday, July 21, 2016
($2,581.00)
1300: Department of Commerce
1333MF: DEPT OF COMMERCE NOAA

B: PURCHASE ORDER
FAR 4.804-5 PROCEDURES FOR CLOSING OUT CONTRACT FILES IGF::OT::IGF
B516: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ANIMAL/FISHERIES

  DOCWE133F14SE3666  
Friday, July 15, 2016
$252,935.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
BACTERIA THAT UTILIZE IRON-OXIDATION (FE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA (FEOB)) AS THEIR PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE ARE ABUNDANT AND DIVERSE, DESPITE BEING CONSTRAINED TO SUB-OXIC HABITATS ON THE FULLY OXYGENATED MODERN EARTH. DURING MUCH OF EARTH'S HISTORY, PROBABLY STARTING AROUND 3 BILLION YEARS AGO, WHEN O2 LEVELS WERE MUCH LOWER OR FLUCTUATED BETWEEN OXIC AND ANOXIC CONDITIONS, THE OCEANS WERE REPLETE WITH FERROUS IRON. IT IS HIGHLY LIKELY THAT FEOB FLOURISHED. THESE BACTERIA COULD HAVE PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SHAPING CONDITIONS FOR LIFE ON THE EARLY EARTH, FURTHERMORE, DUE TO THE OVERALL ABUNDANCE OF IRON ON PLANETS AND PLANETARY BODIES, FE REDOX CHEMISTRY COULD BE A FUNDAMENTAL METABOLISM FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE. WE ALSO KNOW THAT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF MICROBIAL GROWTH ON IRON AT CIRCUMNEUTRAL PH, FEOB PRODUCE UNIQUE ORGANO-METALLIC NANO-AND MICRO-STRUCTURES THAT ARE INCORPORATED INTO THE ROCK RECORD, FORMING A BIOSIGNATURE FOR THEIR EXISTENCE AND ACTIVITY. NONETHELESS, OXYGEN-DEPENDENT FE-OXIDATION AT CIRCUMNEUTRAL PH REMAINS AMONG THE LEAST WELL UNDERSTOOD MAJOR LITHOTROPHIC METABOLISMS ON EARTH. THE PRIMARY GOAL OF THIS PROPOSAL IS TO DEVELOP A MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF MICROBIAL IRON OXIDATION USING COMPARATIVE GENOMICS AND TRANSCRIPTOMICS, AS WELL AS CONSTRAIN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS TO THIS PROBLEM BY ASSESSING THE DIVERSITY OF MECHANISMS CURRENTLY DISPLAYED BY MODERN FE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA. WITHIN THIS CONTEXT, A MAJOR TECHNICAL CHALLENGE WILL BE DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBUST PIPELINE FOR ANALYZING SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMES FROM BACTERIA. SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMICS IS A NOVEL APPROACH THAT WILL PROVIDE INFORMATION, NOT ONLY ABOUT THE GENETIC POTENTIAL OF UNCULTIVATED MICROBES, BUT ALSO ABOUT WHAT GENES THEY ARE ACTUALLY EXPRESSING, PROVIDING DIRECT INSIGHT TO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS THE BACTERIA ARE CARRYING OUT. IN ADDITION, IN TARGETING A POORLY UNDERSTOOD METABOLISM LIKE FE-OXIDATION, TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS MAY PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION AS TO THE SPECIFIC GENES OR GENE FAMILIES THAT ARE INVOLVED IN ENERGY CONSERVATION FROM FE-OXIDATION. WHILE THE SINGLE CELL GENOMICS CENTER AT BIGELOW HAS PROVEN ITS SUCCESS AT ACQUIRING DNA AND GENOMIC SEQUENCES FROM SINGLE CELLS, THE ACQUISITION OF MRNA AND DETERMINATION OF MRNA SEQUENCES HAS NOT BEEN DONE BEFORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL MICROORGANISMS. THUS, THIS APPROACH WILL OFFER SEVERAL TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES THAT, IF SUCCESSFULLY MET, WILL GREATLY ENHANCE OUR CAPACITY TO UNDERSTAND DIVERSE MICROBIAL METABOLISMS, INDEPENDENT OF OUR ABILITY TO CULTIVATE THE MICROBES RESPONSIBLE. IN ADDITION TO THIS SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMICS APPROACH, WORK WILL CONTINUE WITH THE EXPLORATION OF GENOMES FROM CURRENTLY AVAILABLE SINGLE AMPLIFIED GENOMES OF BOTH FRESHWATER AND MARINE FEOB, AS WELL AS ANALYSIS OF IN-SITU HABITATS USING MORE CONVENTIONAL METAGENOMIC AND METATRANSCRIPTOME METHODS. DUE TO THE UNIQUE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THESE TWO MAJOR GROUPS OF FE-OXIDIZERS, THIS KIND OF COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS COULD WELL INFORM US ABOUT MODES OF MICROBIAL EVOLUTION RELATED TO IRON METABOLISM. THE FEOB ARE AN EXCELLENT GROUP OF MICROBES TO TEST THESE METHODS ON DUE TO THEIR UNIQUE PHYSIOLOGY, DIVERSE, BUT CONSERVED PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY, AS WELL THERE BEING A GROUP OF CULTURED REPRESENTATIVES WITHIN A MUCH LARGER GROUP OF UNCULTIVATED MEMBERS. THIS PROJECT COULD CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANTLY TO ADVANCING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THEIR BIOLOGY, AND, PERHAPS EVEN MORE IMPORTANTLY PROVIDE NEW TOOLS FOR ASTROBIOLOGISTS, AND OTHER MICROBIAL ECOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS INTERESTED IN LEARNING ABOUT NOVEL MICROBIAL PROCESSES.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AM11G  
Monday, March 28, 2016
$118,902.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
A CHANGING CLIMATE IMPLIES A SHIFT IN THE MAGNITUDE OF KEY ENVIRONMENTAL PROPERTIES SUCH AS TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION, AND PRODUCTIVITY. IT ALSO OFTEN CAUSES CHANGES IN THE PHENOLOGY THE SEASONAL TIMING OF FEATURES SUCH AS PEAKS OR TROUGHS IN THESE PROPERTIES. IN MARINE AND COASTAL SYSTEMS, MANY KEY ECOLOGICAL EVENTS MIGRATIONS, REPRODUCTION, AND EXPLOITATION OF BLOOMS RELY ON THE PHENOLOGY OF THE UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES. THE SOCIOECONOMIC BENEFITS OF THESE ECOSYSTEMS DERIVED FROM NATURAL RESOURCE EXTRACTION/PROCESSING AND RECREATION TOURISM ARE ALSO CLOSELY TIED TO THE TIMING OF SEASONAL EVENTS. CHANGES IN TIMING CAN OFTEN BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN CHANGES IN MAGNITUDE TO THE AFFECTED ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES. THERE ARE A FEW EXAMPLES OF PHENOLOGICAL CLIMATE INDICATORS IN THE NATIONAL CLIMATE ASSESSMENT, BUT THERE IS A NEED TO INCORPORATE PHENOLOGY INTO CLIMATE ASSESSMENTS MORE BROADLY. WE PROPOSE A STUDY THAT IDENTIFIES KEY PHENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND ANALYZES HOW THEY VARY OVER REGIONAL AND OCEAN BASIN SCALES, EVALUATES THESE INDICES AGAINST IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL SHIFTS TO DETERMINE A SUBSET OF PHENOLOGICAL INDICES THAT ARE MOST INFORMATIVE TO SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT, AND DEVELOPS INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION TOOLS FOR VIEWING PHENOLOGICAL INFORMATION. BASIN AND REGIONAL SCALE ANALYSIS OF PHENOLOGICAL TIME SERIES. FOR SOME MEASUREMENTS, EXTRACTING PHENOLOGICAL INDICES IS FAIRLY STRAIGHT FORWARD, SUCH AS THE DATE OF MAXIMUM WARMING. HOWEVER, SOME MEASUREMENTS, SUCH AS OCEAN COLOR, HAVE EXHIBITED COMPLEX SHIFTS IN PHENOLOGICAL PATTERNS, SUCH AS THE DIVISION OF ONE SEASONAL PEAK INTO MULTIPLE SEASONAL PEAKS. IN SUCH CASES, SIMPLE INDICES WILL NOT EFFECTIVELY REPRESENT THE PHENOLOGY. WE WILL DEVELOP AND TEST ROBUST ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING KEY PHENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES THAT CAN BE APPLIED GENERALLY TO NON STATIONARY TIME SERIES WITH BOTH SIMPLE AND COMPLEX SEASONAL PATTERNS. WE WILL USE THESE METHODOLOGIES TO CALCULATE PHENOLOGICAL INDEX TIME SERIES FOR A SUITE OF EARTH-SYSTEM DATA PRODUCTS: THE PRIMARY OCEANOGRAPHIC VARIABLES SUCH AS SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE, CHLOROPHYLLA AND ADDITIONAL DERIVED VARIABLES. TIME SERIES WILL BE COMPILED FOR EACH PIXEL ACROSS THE NORTH ATLANTIC AND NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN BASINS. WE AIM TO EXTRACT A SMALL NUMBER OF PHENOLOGICAL INDICES THAT ARE MOST INFORMATIVE AS TO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FULL DATA SET. THESE INDICES WILL BE ANALOGOUS TO CURRENT CLIMATE INDICES LIKE THE PACIFIC DECADAL OSCILLATION OR ATLANTIC MULTIDECADAL OSCILLATION, WHICH REPRESENT PRINCIPAL MODES OF VARIABILITY ACROSS LARGE PORTIONS OF THE GLOBE. EVALUATION BY COMPARISON WITH ECOLOGICAL TIME SERIES. WE WILL ASSESS THE UTILITY OF THE OCEANOGRAPHIC PHENOLOGY INDICATORS AND INDICES FOR TRACKING ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC RESPONSES AND IMPACTS. SPECIFICALLY, WE WILL EVALUATE HOW OCEAN PHENOLOGY INDICATORS RELATE TO CHANGES IN SPAWNING MIGRATION TIMING OF ANADROMOUS FISH, INCLUDING SALMON, RIVER HERRING, AND STRIPED BASS. THESE SPECIES ARE IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL LINKS IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS, AND MANY SUSTAIN VALUABLE FISHERIES. MANY POPULATIONS ARE THREATENED OR ENDANGERED, SO THERE IS SIGNIFICANT INTEREST IN UNDERSTANDING HOW ANADROMOUS SPECIES ARE AFFECTED BY CHANGING CLIMATE CONDITIONS. WE WILL ASSESS THE PHENOLOGICAL INDICES POTENTIAL FOR PROVIDING EARLY WARNING FOR KEY PHENOLOGICAL SHIFTS. VISUALIZATION TOOLS FOR PHENOLOGICAL SERIES OF GEOSPATIAL DATA. COMMUNICATING TEMPORAL PROPERTIES ACROSS SPATIAL FIELDS CAN BE CHALLENGING. WITH INPUT FROM STAKEHOLDERS, DATA PRODUCTS WILL BE DEVELOPED TO VISUALIZE AND COMMUNICATE THE PHENOLOGICAL INDICES. OUR PRODUCTS WILL BE COMMUNICATED THROUGH THESE TOOLS AND DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE PO DAAC.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX16AG59G  
Wednesday, December 9, 2015
$115,917.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
THE GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SUPPORT THE PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON PIC ALGORITHM WITHIN THE SUOMI NATIONAL POLAR ORBITING PARTNERSHIP SUOMI NPP. THIS ALGORITHM IS CRITICAL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORES CALCIFYING PHYTOPLANKTON AND UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THESE ORGANISMS, WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL FOR THE FUNCTIONING OF THE OCEAN BIOLOGICAL PUMP. THIS WORK HAS THREE CENTRAL OBJECTIVES, A, PIC ALGORITHMIMPROVEMENTS: THERE ARE SEVERAL SOURCES OF ERROR WITHIN THE PIC ALGORITHM THAT NEED IMPROVEMENT, DERIVATION OF THE DIFFUSE ATTENUATION OF EFFICIENT USED IN THE MODEL, DETERMINATION OF THE COCCOLITH BACKSCATTERING CROSS SECTION AND DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTABLE TO PHYTOPLANKTON CHLOROPHYLL. THIS PROPOSED WORK WILL INVESTIGATE ALL THREE ASPECTS WHICH WILL ALLOW FOR AN IMPROVED VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM. THIS WORK ALSO WILL RESULT IN AN UPDATED PIC ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT ATBD. B, PIC ALGORITHM EVALUATION, THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM IN THE SUOMI NPP ERA IS THE STILL-LIMITED SEA TRUTH PIC DATA TAKEN SINCE THE LAUNCH OF NPP IN OCTOBER, 2011, AVAILABLE FOR PRODUCT EVALUATION. THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS 350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT FOR SEVERAL MORE DECADES. TO DATE, THERE ARE 74 VALIDATED SHIP PIC MATCH-UPS WITH VIIRS PIC ESTIMATES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE A MODEST FIELD VALIDATION EFFORT 240 STATIONS WITHIN THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC TO AUGMENT THE FIELD PIC DATA AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATION OF THE VIIRS PIC PRODUCT. WE PROPOSE TO PARTICIPATE IN THREE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE SUOMI NPP MISSION. THIS WORK WILL PROVIDE COLLECTION ANALYSIS OF OTHER VARIABLES, TOO, CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON POC, INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES IOPS E.G. PARTICLE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING AND APPARENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AOPS FOR VALIDATING VIIRS NORMALIZED WATER LEAVING RADIANCE MEASUREMENTS, ALL IN SUPPORT OF THEIR EVALUATION AS VIIRS EDRS AND CDRS. NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR THE FIELD WORK, ALL THREE CRUISES ARE PART OF THE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT PROGRAM, LONG SUPPORTED BY THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE U.K. C, CONTINUITY OF THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT, THE OVERARCHING GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SEAMLESSLY TRANSITION THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT FROM THE EOS ERA TO THE SUOMI NPP ERA AND ULTIMATELY TO THE JPSS AND PACE ERAS. CRITICAL IN THIS GOAL IS DEFINING THE ERROR BUDGETS OF THE VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM FOR COMPARISON TO THE SAME PRODUCT DERIVED FROM MODIS AND TRACEABLE TO THE ATBD. THIS WORK WILL BE WELL COORDINATED WITH THE OCEAN SCIENCE INVESTIGATOR LED PROCESSING SYSTEMS OCEAN SIPS. THIS PROPOSAL INCLUDES A REQUEST FOR A POST DOC IN ORDER TO BEGIN TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF SCIENTISTS FOR COCCOLITHOPHORE BIO-OPTICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL WORK IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC OCEAN COLOR PRODUCT. SIGNIFICANCE, THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS, 1,CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2, CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH 1, DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, 2 QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES AND 3 PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. ULTIMATELY, IT WILL ALLOW BETTER EVALUATION OF THE FUTURE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AS IT IS INFLUENCED BY CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ43A  
Tuesday, November 24, 2015
$214,364.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROJECT WILL CONTINUE THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS) WHICH IS A 35+YEAR, NASA-CENTRIC, FIELD PROGRAM THAT CROSSES THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) TO COLLECT BIO-OPTICAL, HYDROGRAPHICAL, BIOLOGICAL, BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL (INCLUDING CARBON-RELEVANT) DATA FOR USE IN SATELLITE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION STUDIES, AS WELL AS A LONG-TERM TRANSECT TIME SERIES. WE PROPOSE TO USE A COMBINATION OF SATELLITE AND GNATS DATA (SHIPBOARD AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS) TO CONSTRAIN A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE. THE OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT GNATS HAS PROVIDED CRITICAL CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR SEAWIFS, MODIS, AND VIIRS SENSORS, AS WELL AS INSIGHTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC CARBON CYCLE CHANGES IN THE GOM, A SEMI-ENCLOSED SHELF SEA, WITH STRONG LAND-SEA CONNECTIONS VIA 25 SURROUNDING WATERSHEDS. WE DIRECT THIS PROPOSAL TO THE SECOND RESEARCH THEME OF THE NASA ROSES 13 CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE PROGRAM: CARBON DYNAMICS ALONG TERRESTRIAL-AQUATIC INTERFACES, INCLUDING LAND-OCEAN, LAND-FRESHWATER, AND COASTAL OCEAN REGIONS. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GOM, INCLUDING ITS CARBON CYCLE. THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY RELEVANT TO NASA (GIVEN THE NASA-CENTRIC GNATS SAMPLING) AND SECONDARILY TO NOAA, SPECIFICALLY FOR WORK ON PRODUCTIVITY, ALGAL BIOMASS, AND PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF U. S. COASTAL WATERS, AS WELL AS CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF THE NPP/VIIRS SENSOR. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS MEASURES ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE: PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; CALCITE), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC; E.G., CO2, HCO3-, AND CO3=, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO PH AND ALKALINITY). THESE FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE (INCLUDING RESERVOIRS AND FLUXES) PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING THE COASTAL OCEAN, FROM CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY (I.E. POC VARIABILITY THROUGH TIME ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN HYDROGRAPHY, DIFFERENT PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, ETC.), LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT (I.E. DOC AND POC VARIABILITY CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS), AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION (I.E. VARIABILITY IN DIC AND PIC CAUSED BY CHANGES IN CARBONATE SATURATION). SIMPLY PUT, THE ONLY WAY TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE THROUGH A COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH. THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL TO BE USED FOR THE GULF OF MAINE CARBON CYCLE CONSISTS OF SIZE-STRUCTURED CARBON POOLS OF DETRITAL MATERIAL, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES RANGING FROM PICOPLANKTON TO MICROPLANKTON, AND A SIZE-BASED ZOOPLANKTON PREDATOR GROUP. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS WILL BE DETERMINED BY BOTH SIZE AND FUNCTIONAL ROLE, AND THE MODEL WILL BE FORCED BY GOM PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. WE WILL VALIDATE THE MODEL AGAINST GNATS DATA, AND TEST THE ABILITY OF REMOTELY-SENSED PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, COUPLED WITH THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL, TO REPRODUCE THE OBSERVED DYNAMICS. WE WILL THEN USE THE MODEL TO TEST HYPOTHESES REGARDING THE FATE OF CARBON RESULTING FROM CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES SUCH AS INCREASED PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE. ANTICIPATED SCIENTIFIC OUTCOMES FROM THIS WORK WILL BE A) A LONGER DURATION, NASA-CENTRIC, COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT CAN RESOLVE CLIMATOLOGICAL PHENOMENA SPANNING TIME SCALES OF DAYS TO DECADES AND B) A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL BASED ON GNATS THAT USES REMOTELY-SENSED, SHIP AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE DATA TO CONSTRAIN THE MODEL AND TEST HYPOTHESES RELEVANT TO EACH PART OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AM77G  
Tuesday, September 8, 2015
$214,364.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROJECT WILL CONTINUE THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS) WHICH IS A 35+YEAR, NASA-CENTRIC, FIELD PROGRAM THAT CROSSES THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) TO COLLECT BIO-OPTICAL, HYDROGRAPHICAL, BIOLOGICAL, BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL (INCLUDING CARBON-RELEVANT) DATA FOR USE IN SATELLITE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION STUDIES, AS WELL AS A LONG-TERM TRANSECT TIME SERIES. WE PROPOSE TO USE A COMBINATION OF SATELLITE AND GNATS DATA (SHIPBOARD AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS) TO CONSTRAIN A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE. THE OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT GNATS HAS PROVIDED CRITICAL CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR SEAWIFS, MODIS, AND VIIRS SENSORS, AS WELL AS INSIGHTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC CARBON CYCLE CHANGES IN THE GOM, A SEMI-ENCLOSED SHELF SEA, WITH STRONG LAND-SEA CONNECTIONS VIA 25 SURROUNDING WATERSHEDS. WE DIRECT THIS PROPOSAL TO THE SECOND RESEARCH THEME OF THE NASA ROSES 13 CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE PROGRAM: CARBON DYNAMICS ALONG TERRESTRIAL-AQUATIC INTERFACES, INCLUDING LAND-OCEAN, LAND-FRESHWATER, AND COASTAL OCEAN REGIONS. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GOM, INCLUDING ITS CARBON CYCLE. THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY RELEVANT TO NASA (GIVEN THE NASA-CENTRIC GNATS SAMPLING) AND SECONDARILY TO NOAA, SPECIFICALLY FOR WORK ON PRODUCTIVITY, ALGAL BIOMASS, AND PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF U. S. COASTAL WATERS, AS WELL AS CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF THE NPP/VIIRS SENSOR. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS MEASURES ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE: PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; CALCITE), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC; E.G., CO2, HCO3-, AND CO3=, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO PH AND ALKALINITY). THESE FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE (INCLUDING RESERVOIRS AND FLUXES) PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING THE COASTAL OCEAN, FROM CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY (I.E. POC VARIABILITY THROUGH TIME ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN HYDROGRAPHY, DIFFERENT PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, ETC.), LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT (I.E. DOC AND POC VARIABILITY CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS), AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION (I.E. VARIABILITY IN DIC AND PIC CAUSED BY CHANGES IN CARBONATE SATURATION). SIMPLY PUT, THE ONLY WAY TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE THROUGH A COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH. THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL TO BE USED FOR THE GULF OF MAINE CARBON CYCLE CONSISTS OF SIZE-STRUCTURED CARBON POOLS OF DETRITAL MATERIAL, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES RANGING FROM PICOPLANKTON TO MICROPLANKTON, AND A SIZE-BASED ZOOPLANKTON PREDATOR GROUP. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS WILL BE DETERMINED BY BOTH SIZE AND FUNCTIONAL ROLE, AND THE MODEL WILL BE FORCED BY GOM PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. WE WILL VALIDATE THE MODEL AGAINST GNATS DATA, AND TEST THE ABILITY OF REMOTELY-SENSED PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, COUPLED WITH THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL, TO REPRODUCE THE OBSERVED DYNAMICS. WE WILL THEN USE THE MODEL TO TEST HYPOTHESES REGARDING THE FATE OF CARBON RESULTING FROM CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES SUCH AS INCREASED PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE. ANTICIPATED SCIENTIFIC OUTCOMES FROM THIS WORK WILL BE A) A LONGER DURATION, NASA-CENTRIC, COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT CAN RESOLVE CLIMATOLOGICAL PHENOMENA SPANNING TIME SCALES OF DAYS TO DECADES AND B) A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL BASED ON GNATS THAT USES REMOTELY-SENSED, SHIP AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE DATA TO CONSTRAIN THE MODEL AND TEST HYPOTHESES RELEVANT TO EACH PART OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AM77G  
Thursday, September 3, 2015
$193,383.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
THE GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SUPPORT THE PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON PIC ALGORITHM WITHIN THE SUOMI NATIONAL POLAR ORBITING PARTNERSHIP SUOMI NPP. THIS ALGORITHM IS CRITICAL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORES CALCIFYING PHYTOPLANKTON AND UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THESE ORGANISMS, WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL FOR THE FUNCTIONING OF THE OCEAN BIOLOGICAL PUMP. THIS WORK HAS THREE CENTRAL OBJECTIVES, A, PIC ALGORITHMIMPROVEMENTS: THERE ARE SEVERAL SOURCES OF ERROR WITHIN THE PIC ALGORITHM THAT NEED IMPROVEMENT, DERIVATION OF THE DIFFUSE ATTENUATION OF EFFICIENT USED IN THE MODEL, DETERMINATION OF THE COCCOLITH BACKSCATTERING CROSS SECTION AND DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTABLE TO PHYTOPLANKTON CHLOROPHYLL. THIS PROPOSED WORK WILL INVESTIGATE ALL THREE ASPECTS WHICH WILL ALLOW FOR AN IMPROVED VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM. THIS WORK ALSO WILL RESULT IN AN UPDATED PIC ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT ATBD. B, PIC ALGORITHM EVALUATION, THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM IN THE SUOMI NPP ERA IS THE STILL-LIMITED SEA TRUTH PIC DATA TAKEN SINCE THE LAUNCH OF NPP IN OCTOBER, 2011, AVAILABLE FOR PRODUCT EVALUATION. THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS 350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT FOR SEVERAL MORE DECADES. TO DATE, THERE ARE 74 VALIDATED SHIP PIC MATCH-UPS WITH VIIRS PIC ESTIMATES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE A MODEST FIELD VALIDATION EFFORT 240 STATIONS WITHIN THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC TO AUGMENT THE FIELD PIC DATA AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATION OF THE VIIRS PIC PRODUCT. WE PROPOSE TO PARTICIPATE IN THREE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE SUOMI NPP MISSION. THIS WORK WILL PROVIDE COLLECTION ANALYSIS OF OTHER VARIABLES, TOO, CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON POC, INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES IOPS E.G. PARTICLE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING AND APPARENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AOPS FOR VALIDATING VIIRS NORMALIZED WATER LEAVING RADIANCE MEASUREMENTS, ALL IN SUPPORT OF THEIR EVALUATION AS VIIRS EDRS AND CDRS. NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR THE FIELD WORK, ALL THREE CRUISES ARE PART OF THE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT PROGRAM, LONG SUPPORTED BY THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE U.K. C, CONTINUITY OF THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT, THE OVERARCHING GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO SEAMLESSLY TRANSITION THE PIC SCIENCE DATA PRODUCT FROM THE EOS ERA TO THE SUOMI NPP ERA AND ULTIMATELY TO THE JPSS AND PACE ERAS. CRITICAL IN THIS GOAL IS DEFINING THE ERROR BUDGETS OF THE VIIRS PIC ALGORITHM FOR COMPARISON TO THE SAME PRODUCT DERIVED FROM MODIS AND TRACEABLE TO THE ATBD. THIS WORK WILL BE WELL COORDINATED WITH THE OCEAN SCIENCE INVESTIGATOR LED PROCESSING SYSTEMS OCEAN SIPS. THIS PROPOSAL INCLUDES A REQUEST FOR A POST DOC IN ORDER TO BEGIN TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF SCIENTISTS FOR COCCOLITHOPHORE BIO-OPTICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL WORK IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC OCEAN COLOR PRODUCT. SIGNIFICANCE, THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS, 1,CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2, CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH 1, DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, 2 QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES AND 3 PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. ULTIMATELY, IT WILL ALLOW BETTER EVALUATION OF THE FUTURE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AS IT IS INFLUENCED BY CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ43A  
Wednesday, September 2, 2015
$116,981.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
I PROPOSE TO MAINTAIN THE ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; OTHERWISE KNOWN AS CALCIUM CARBONATE). TO DATE, THE PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN BASED ON AN EVER-INCREASING, BUT STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, SET OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS (SMALL AS COMPARED TO THE CHLOROPHYLL A VALIDATION DATA SET, WHICH CONTAINS ~350X MORE DATA SIMPLY BECAUSE MORE INVESTIGATORS HAVE SAMPLED IT OVER THE YEARS AND CHLOROPHYLL ANALYSES ARE CHEAPER TO RUN). THE MERGED TWO-BAND/THREE-BAND ALGORITHM IS FUNDAMENTALLY A CASE I ALGORITHM; THAT IS, IT IS DESIGNED FOR AREAS WHERE SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS,RIVER-BORN SEDIMENTS OR COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACT OCEAN OPTICAL PROPERTIES. THE PIC ALGORITHM ACCOUNTS FOR 78% OF THE VARIANCE IN FIELD-MEASURED PIC AND THE STANDARD ERROR OF PIC DETERMINATIONS (COMPARED TO SHIPBOARD VALIDATION DATA) IS +/-0.08MMOL M^-3, COMPARABLE TO THE PIC CONCENTRATIONS FOUND IN OLIGOTROPHIC GYRES. BUT THERE IS STILL CONSIDERABLE ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE PIC ALGORITHM. THESE STATISTICS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED IF THE SATELLITE DATA ARE BINNED IN SPACE AND TIME (RELATIVELY EASY TO DO WITH SATELLITE DATA, BUT THIS OBVIOUSLY COMPROMISES TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTION). IN CASE I WATERS, ERRORS IN THE ALGORITHM RESULT FROM: (A) THE CALCITE-SPECIFIC BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION ATTRIBUTED TO COCCOLITHOPHORES; (B) ERRORS IN THE CHLOROPHYLL-DEPENDENT BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTED TO PHYTOPLANKTON; AND (C) PRESENCE OF OTHER SCATTERING MINERALS, SUCH AS BIOGENIC SILICA FROM DIATOM FRUSTULES, WHICH DO NOT SCATTER AS INTENSELY AS PIC, BUT NONETHELESS CAN CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANT OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING. I PROPOSE TO CONTINUE EVALUATING NEW DATA SETS FOR PIC (GENERATED FROM OTHER ONGOING STUDIES) IN ORDER TO REVISE PIC ALGORITHM COEFFICIENTS AND LOOK-UP TABLES. REGARDING THE FIRST SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL FOCUS ON BETTER DEFINING THE BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION OF CALCITE COCCOLITHS GEOGRAPHICALLY. IMPROVEMENTS IN OUR ESTIMATE OF THE BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION FOR CALCITE COCCOLITHS WILL SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE THE ACCURACY OF THE PIC ALGORITHM. REGARDING THE SECOND SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL EXPERIMENT WITH NEW ALGORITHMS FOR DERIVING CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION (E.G., THE REFLECTANCE DIFFERENCING ALGORITHM OF HU ET AL., 2012). THIS WILL PROVIDE A BETTER DERIVATION OF THE BACKSCATTERING ASSOCIATED WITH CHLOROPHYLL CONTAINING PHYTOPLANKTON, WHICH, IN TURN, WILL ALLOW IMPROVED ESTIMATES OF PIC. THIS WORK WILL BE IN COLLABORATION WITH DR. CHUAMIN HU (UNIV. SOUTH FLORIDA). REGARDING THE THIRD SOURCE OF ERROR, I WILL CORRECT FOR THE PRESENCE OF BIOGENIC SILICA, WHICH IS UBIQUITOUS OVER THE GLOBE AND A POTENTIALLY IMPORTANT LIGHT SCATTERING CONTRIBUTOR IN ITS OWN RIGHT. MOREOVER, BIOGENIC SILICA CAN NOW BE ESTIMATED REMOTELY (BALCH ET AL., 2010). ACCOUNTING FOR THIS COMPONENT OF THE BACKSCATTERING SIGNAL WILL ALLOW BETTER ESTIMATES OF PIC BACKSCATTERING AND DERIVATION OF PIC CONCENTRATION. I WILL COMPARE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION FOR BOTH MODIS AQUA AND MODIS TERRA SATELLITES AND PERFORM FULL ERROR ANALYSES OF THE REVISED ALGORITHM IN THE INTEREST OF PROVIDING SEAMLESS, CLIMATE-QUALITY, PIC DATA. ALTHOUGH THE FOCUS OF THIS PROPOSAL IS ON CONTINUITY OF THE TERRA AND AQUA PIC PRODUCT, THE ALGORITHM CAN ALSO BE APPLIED TO VIIRS IMAGERY. DR. HOWARD GORDON (UNIV. MIAMI) WILL BE COLLABORATING ON THE OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF THE REVISED PIC ALGORITHM. THE OUTCOME OF THIS ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE WORK WILL BE AN IMPROVED PIC PRODUCT WITH LOWER RMS ERROR.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AQ41G  
Wednesday, September 2, 2015
$216,184.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS: INTEGRATING THE MODIS PIC PRODUCT INTO THE CLIMATE DATA RECORD THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES THE SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE MODIS ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON ("PIC," OR SUSPENDED CALCIUM CARBONATE). THE ALGORITHM WORKS BY DERIVING PIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING, WHICH IS CONVERTED TO PIC CONCENTRATION. IT DETECTS CACO3 OF COCCOLITHOPHORES DUE TO THEIR RELATIVELY HIGH ABUNDANCE IN THE SEA AND THEIR EXTREMELY HIGH PIC-SPECIFIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING. BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHERS HAVE GENERALLY FOCUSED ON THE MOST VISIBLE, MESOSCALE COCCOLITHOPHORE BLOOMS AT HIGH LATITUDES (REPRESENTING 5% OF TIME AND SPACE), AS COMPARED TO THE MUCH-LESS-ABUNDANT COCCOLITHOPHORE POPULATIONS FOUND IN OTHER ENVIRONMENTS (95% OF TIME AND SPACE). THIS ALGORITHM ALLOWS POPULATIONS TO BE DISCERNED WHETHER THEY ARE IN BLOOMS OR AT LOWER CONCENTRATIONS, HAS BEEN VALIDATED IN EVERY MAJOR OCEAN ON EARTH, AND IS NOW MATURE ENOUGH TO BE ADDRESSED IN THIS "SCIENCE AND DATA ANALYSIS" PROPOSAL. SPECIFICALLY, WE HAVE FIVE OBJECTIVES: 1) DEFINE THE IMPORTANT SCALES OF VARIABILITY OF PIC BY COMPARING RESULTS FROM MODIS AND MISR SENSORS (THE FORMER HAS 1KM RESOLUTION, THE LATTER HAS 275M RESOLUTION), 2) ADDRESS WHETHER PIC HAS SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED OVER THE MODIS MISSIONS, BOTH GLOBALLY AND REGIONALLY (IN THE LONGHURST BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCES), 3) EXAMINE WHETHER THERE HAVE BEEN CHANGES IN THE ANNUAL PHENOLOGY (TIME OF ANNUAL BLOOM AND SENESCENCE) OF COCCOLITHOPHORES, ON A GLOBAL OR REGIONAL BASIS, 4) ASSESS WHETHER THE TURNOVER OF PIC (SET BY PRODUCTION RATES MINUS LOSS RATES ASSOCIATED WITH GRAZING, DISSOLUTION, AND SINKING) HAS VARIED OVER THE PERIOD OF THE MODIS MISSIONS, AND 5) DETERMINE WHETHER THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COCCOLITHOPHORE PIC IS SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED BY THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF HYDROGRAPHIC FRONTS AND WHETHER BLOOM TIMING IS BEING AFFECTED BY MAJOR WIND EVENTS AND CHANGES THEREOF. UNDER THE RUBRIC OF "CARBON CYCLE&amp;ECOSYSTEMS," THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPOSED WORK FOCUSES ON THE CYCLING OF CARBON WITHIN THE OCEAN, SPECIFICALLY BY ONE FUNCTIONAL GROUP, THE CALCIFIERS. ELUCIDATION OF LONG-TERM TRENDS AND CHANGES IN PHENOLOGY WILL HAVE STRONG RELEVANCE TO OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, ESPECIALLY GIVEN THE IMPORTANCE OF PIC TO THE RATE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PUMP. OUR APPLICATION OF MISR TO COCCOLITHOPHORE STUDIES WILL ALLOW SMALLER-SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF BLOOMS AT ~1/4 THE SPATIAL SCALE OF MODIS, WHICH WILL PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE VARIOUS PHYSICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE AND TIME. THE ADVENT OF AQUARIUS SALINITY DATA, WHEN COMBINED WITH MODIS SST DATA, NOW ALLOWS THE ESTIMATION OF SEA SURFACE DENSITY AND, USING GRADIENT FINDING ALGORITHMS, WILL ALLOW US TO DETERMINE WHETHER STEEP GRADIENTS IN COCCOLITHOPHORE DENSITY FALL AT MAJOR OCEAN HYDROGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES. VARIOUS OTHER DATA SETS AVAILABLE FROM THE CURRENT CONSTELLATION OF EARTH OBSERVING SATELLITES (E.G., WIND SPEED) WILL ALSO ALLOW BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPORTANCE OF FRONTAL BOUNDARIES AND WIND MIXING (USING AMSR-E; AQUARIUS), AS THEY INFLUENCE GLOBAL CALCITE PRODUCTION IN THE SEA. THIS PROPOSED WORK DIRECTLY FOCUSES ON TWO OF NASA'S FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS IN EARTH SCIENCE: (A) "HOW IS THE GLOBAL EARTH SYSTEM CHANGING?" AND (B) "WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF CHANGE IN THE EARTH SYSTEM, THEIR MAGNITUDES, AND TRENDS?" THE WORK ALSO CONTRIBUTES TO OTHER CRITICAL NASA EARTH SCIENCE GOALS: TO QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS, AND CARBON FLUXES; AND TO UNDERSTAND HOW MARINE ECOSYSTEMS (OF WHICH PIC IS A MAJOR PART OF THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE) ARE CHANGING. THIS RESEARCH WILL YIELD NEW KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE TURNOVER WITHIN THE CARBONATE SYSTEM AS OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS RESPOND TO GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AL92G  
Monday, July 6, 2015
$13,050.00
1300: Department of Commerce
WE133F: WESTERN FIELD DELEGATES NMFS

B: PURCHASE ORDER
MODIFICATION TO EXERCISE OPTION AND INCEASE QUANTITY OF SAMPLES. IGF::OT::IGF
B516: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ANIMAL/FISHERIES

  DOCWE133F14SE3666  
Wednesday, July 1, 2015
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
AUTOCHTHONOUS PRIMARY PRODUCTION IS THE MAJOR SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ARCTIC OCEAN (AO)ECOSYSTEM. IN THE LAST DECADE, IT APPEARS THAT NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY (NPP) IN THE AO HAS INCREASED CONSIDERABLY, AS ESTIMATED FROM REMOTELY-SENSED OBSERVATIONS; HOWEVER, WE DO NOT YET HAVE SUFFICIENT SPATIAL DATA COVERAGE TO VALIDATE SUCH TRENDS OVER THE ENTIRE AO. ALTHOUGH ARCTIC MARINE NPP IS STRONGLY SEASONAL, SOME ARCTIC SHELF SEAS RANK AMONG THE MOST PRODUCTIVE REGIONS IN THE WORLD OCEAN, WHEREAS MEAN NPP IN DEEP AO BASINS IS AMONG THE LOWEST. THROUGH BOTTOMUP FORCING IN THE FOOD WEB, MARINE NPP CONSTRAINS PELAGIC AND BENTHIC HIGHER TROPHIC LEVELS,INCLUDING SIGNIFICANT NATIONAL AND LOCAL COMMUNITY FISHERIES. THEREFORE, CHANGES IN NPP ARE LIKELY TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACT THE ARCTIC'S LIVING MARINE RESOURCES AND MANY BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. HOWEVER, CONSENSUS ABOUT THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF VARIABLES AND PROCESSES CONTROLLING NPP IN THE AO AT DIFFERENT TIMES AND IN DIFFERENT REGIONS IS LACKING. SEA ICE, COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER, AND STRATIFICATION ARE THE MAJOR CONTROLS OF THE LIGHT REGIME FOR PHYTOPLANKTON WHILE WINTER WIND MIXING, UPWELLING, EDDIES, RIVER DISCHARGE AND STRATIFICATION ARE INVOLVED IN NUTRIENT REPLENISHMENT. GIVEN PROJECTED HIGH SENSITIVITY OF THE AO TO CLIMATE CHANGE, COMBINED WITH THE OBSERVED CONTEMPORARY CHANGES, A REGIONAL AO PP ASSESSMENT WILL PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL STEP FORWARD IN THIS REGION. WE PROPOSE TO CONDUCT A PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY ALGORITHM ROUND ROBIN ACTIVITY (PPARR) AS A FRAMEWORK IN WHICH THE SKILL AND SENSITIVITIES OF NPP MODELS IN THE AO, INCLUDING BOTH SATELLITE NPP MODELS AND COUPLED BIOGEOCHEMICAL-CIRCULATION MODELS, CAN BE ASSESSED THROUGH MULTIPLE TYPES OF COMPARISONS. REGIONAL NPP MODELS ARE BECOMING AVAILABLE FOR THE AO AND HELPING TO UNDERSTAND THE BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF THIS REGION, ESPECIALLY AT TIMES AND IN SECTORS WHERE FIELD SAMPLING IS DIFFICULT, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE, DUE TO EXTREMELY HARSH CONDITIONS OR DIPLOMATIC LACK OF ACCESS TO MAJOR PORTIONS OF THE AO. MOST OCEAN COLOR MODELS ESTIMATE NPP FROM CONCENTRATIONS OF SURFACE CHLOROPHYLL-A, WHICH IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN THE AO WHERE THE HETEROGENEITY IN SPACE AND TIME OF THE AVAILABLE IN SITU CHLOROPHYLL-A AND NPP DATA MAKE THE EXTENSIVE COVERAGE OF SATELLITE DATA PARTICULARLY ATTRACTIVE. HOWEVER, THE AO PRESENTS SEVERAL OBSTACLES TO REMOTE SENSING OF OCEAN COLOR AND DERIVATION OF ACCURATE ESTIMATES OF SURFACE CHLOROPHYLL-A, SUCH AS SEA ICE, CLOUD COVER, LAND-DERIVED RIVER-BORNE COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER, DEEP SUBSURFACE CHLOROPHYLL-A MAXIMA, AND CLIMATE CHANGE. OUR PROPOSED PPARR5 WILL INCLUDE A COMPARISON OF 20-30 OCEAN COLOR, BIOGEOCHEMICAL OCEAN CIRCULATION MODELS, AND 7-10 FULLY-COUPLED EARTH SYSTEM MODELS CONTRIBUTING TO THE FIFTH ASSESSMENT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC). MODEL ESTIMATES OF NPP WILL BE COMPARED TO EACH OTHER IN TERMS OF BIAS AND VARIABILITY. AVERAGE AND INDIVIDUAL MODEL SKILL WILL BE ASSESSED ON A REGIONSPECIFIC BASIS (E.G., NERITIC VERSUS PELAGIC) BY COMPARING ESTIMATES OF INTEGRATED AND DEPTH-SPECIFIC NPP TO IN SITU 14C MEASUREMENTS. NEXT, THE EFFECT OF DEEP CHLOROPHYLL-A MAXIMUM ON INTEGRATED VS. SURFACE NPP WILL BE DETERMINED. FINALLY, WE WILL COMPARE PROJECTIONS OF NPP UP TO THE YEAR 2100 FOR THE AO FROM THE EARTH SYSTEM MODELS UNDER THE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS IN THE FIFTH IPCC ASSESSMENT. OUR PROJECT RESPONDS DIRECTLY TO THE NRA- OCEAN BIOLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY (OBB) PRIORITY AREAS ON NEW ANALYSES OF IMPACTS TO AND VULNERABILITY OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS/ BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY TO GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL OR CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE AND SUCCESSOR STUDIES THAT OFFER TO SIGNIFICANTLY ADVANCE THE RESULTS OF PRIOR NASA OBB RESEARCH TOWARD MEANINGFUL ANSWERS TO IMPORTANT NASA AND USGCRP CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS AND NOC RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX13AE81G  
Wednesday, July 1, 2015
$242,457.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
BACTERIA THAT UTILIZE IRON-OXIDATION (FE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA (FEOB)) AS THEIR PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE ARE ABUNDANT AND DIVERSE, DESPITE BEING CONSTRAINED TO SUB-OXIC HABITATS ON THE FULLY OXYGENATED MODERN EARTH. DURING MUCH OF EARTH'S HISTORY, PROBABLY STARTING AROUND 3 BILLION YEARS AGO, WHEN O2 LEVELS WERE MUCH LOWER OR FLUCTUATED BETWEEN OXIC AND ANOXIC CONDITIONS, THE OCEANS WERE REPLETE WITH FERROUS IRON. IT IS HIGHLY LIKELY THAT FEOB FLOURISHED. THESE BACTERIA COULD HAVE PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SHAPING CONDITIONS FOR LIFE ON THE EARLY EARTH, FURTHERMORE, DUE TO THE OVERALL ABUNDANCE OF IRON ON PLANETS AND PLANETARY BODIES, FE REDOX CHEMISTRY COULD BE A FUNDAMENTAL METABOLISM FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE. WE ALSO KNOW THAT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF MICROBIAL GROWTH ON IRON AT CIRCUMNEUTRAL PH, FEOB PRODUCE UNIQUE ORGANO-METALLIC NANO-AND MICRO-STRUCTURES THAT ARE INCORPORATED INTO THE ROCK RECORD, FORMING A BIOSIGNATURE FOR THEIR EXISTENCE AND ACTIVITY. NONETHELESS, OXYGEN-DEPENDENT FE-OXIDATION AT CIRCUMNEUTRAL PH REMAINS AMONG THE LEAST WELL UNDERSTOOD MAJOR LITHOTROPHIC METABOLISMS ON EARTH. THE PRIMARY GOAL OF THIS PROPOSAL IS TO DEVELOP A MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF MICROBIAL IRON OXIDATION USING COMPARATIVE GENOMICS AND TRANSCRIPTOMICS, AS WELL AS CONSTRAIN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS TO THIS PROBLEM BY ASSESSING THE DIVERSITY OF MECHANISMS CURRENTLY DISPLAYED BY MODERN FE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA. WITHIN THIS CONTEXT, A MAJOR TECHNICAL CHALLENGE WILL BE DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBUST PIPELINE FOR ANALYZING SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMES FROM BACTERIA. SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMICS IS A NOVEL APPROACH THAT WILL PROVIDE INFORMATION, NOT ONLY ABOUT THE GENETIC POTENTIAL OF UNCULTIVATED MICROBES, BUT ALSO ABOUT WHAT GENES THEY ARE ACTUALLY EXPRESSING, PROVIDING DIRECT INSIGHT TO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS THE BACTERIA ARE CARRYING OUT. IN ADDITION, IN TARGETING A POORLY UNDERSTOOD METABOLISM LIKE FE-OXIDATION, TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS MAY PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION AS TO THE SPECIFIC GENES OR GENE FAMILIES THAT ARE INVOLVED IN ENERGY CONSERVATION FROM FE-OXIDATION. WHILE THE SINGLE CELL GENOMICS CENTER AT BIGELOW HAS PROVEN ITS SUCCESS AT ACQUIRING DNA AND GENOMIC SEQUENCES FROM SINGLE CELLS, THE ACQUISITION OF MRNA AND DETERMINATION OF MRNA SEQUENCES HAS NOT BEEN DONE BEFORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL MICROORGANISMS. THUS, THIS APPROACH WILL OFFER SEVERAL TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES THAT, IF SUCCESSFULLY MET, WILL GREATLY ENHANCE OUR CAPACITY TO UNDERSTAND DIVERSE MICROBIAL METABOLISMS, INDEPENDENT OF OUR ABILITY TO CULTIVATE THE MICROBES RESPONSIBLE. IN ADDITION TO THIS SINGLE CELL TRANSCRIPTOMICS APPROACH, WORK WILL CONTINUE WITH THE EXPLORATION OF GENOMES FROM CURRENTLY AVAILABLE SINGLE AMPLIFIED GENOMES OF BOTH FRESHWATER AND MARINE FEOB, AS WELL AS ANALYSIS OF IN-SITU HABITATS USING MORE CONVENTIONAL METAGENOMIC AND METATRANSCRIPTOME METHODS. DUE TO THE UNIQUE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THESE TWO MAJOR GROUPS OF FE-OXIDIZERS, THIS KIND OF COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS COULD WELL INFORM US ABOUT MODES OF MICROBIAL EVOLUTION RELATED TO IRON METABOLISM. THE FEOB ARE AN EXCELLENT GROUP OF MICROBES TO TEST THESE METHODS ON DUE TO THEIR UNIQUE PHYSIOLOGY, DIVERSE, BUT CONSERVED PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY, AS WELL THERE BEING A GROUP OF CULTURED REPRESENTATIVES WITHIN A MUCH LARGER GROUP OF UNCULTIVATED MEMBERS. THIS PROJECT COULD CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANTLY TO ADVANCING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THEIR BIOLOGY, AND, PERHAPS EVEN MORE IMPORTANTLY PROVIDE NEW TOOLS FOR ASTROBIOLOGISTS, AND OTHER MICROBIAL ECOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS INTERESTED IN LEARNING ABOUT NOVEL MICROBIAL PROCESSES.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AM11G  
Wednesday, May 20, 2015
($1.00)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
I PROPOSE A SERIES OF BIOLOGICAL AND BIO-OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS TO ADDRESS THE ROLE OF CALCIFIERS IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN (AO). THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE THAT INCLUDES THE CHUKCHI AND BEAUFORT SEAS IS EXPECTED TO UNDERGO FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES AS THE ICE CAP MELTS, AFFECTING BOTH THE BIOTA (INCREASED ABUNDANCE OF COCCOLITHOPHORES) AND THE BIO-OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WATER MASS (DUE TO INCREASED ABUNDANCE OF HIGHLY-SCATTERING CALCIUM CARBONATE COCCOLITHS). I AM PROPOSING A SERIES OF MEASUREMENTS TO BE DONE ON THE TWO NASA CRUISES TO THE CHUKCHI AND BEAUFORT SEAS, FAILING INTO "DISCRETE" AND "UNDERWAY" SAMPLING. THE DISCRETE MEASUREMENTS WILL DETERMINE: CALCIFICATION RATE (USING THE 14C MICRO-DIFFUSION METHOD WHICH ALSO ESTIMATES TOTAL PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY), CONCENTRATIONS OF THE TWO MAJOR SEA WATER BALLAST MINERALS (PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC) PLUS BIOGENIC SILLICA (BSI) AND COCCOLITHOPHORE/PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE (USING POLARIZED MICROSCOPY PLUS A F1OW-CAM). AUTOMATED UNDERWAY MEASUREMENTS WILL BE MADE FOR: INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES (SPECTRAL ABSORPTION AND ATTENUATION [DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE), BACKSCATTERING, ACID-LABILE BACKSCATTERING, CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE, ALL SAMPLED FROM THE SHIP'S SEAWATER SYSTEM) PLUS APPARENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES (SPECTRAL UPWELLING RADIANCE, SKY RADIANCE AND DOWNWELLING IRRADIANCE AS MEASURED FROM BOW-MOUNTED RADIOMETERS). THE LATTER MEASUREMENTS WILL PROVIDE CRITICAL MATCHUPS FOR SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS, AS WELL AS RADIOMETRY FOR USE IN REAL TIME ESTIMATES OF CHLOROPHYLL AND PIC WHEN CLOUDS OBSCURE THE SATELLITE VIEW. IN THE LATTER TWO YEAN OF THE PROJECT, THE SHIP DATA WILL BE USED FOR REGIONAL CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION OF PIC AND CALCIFICATION ALGORITHMS SO THAT WE CAN USE THE HISTORICAL DATA BASE OF SATELLITE OCEAN COLOR TO EXAMINE FOR LONG-TERM CHANGES IN COCCOLITHOPHORE ABUNDANCE IN THE AO. THIS WORK WILL PROVIDE FUNDAMENTAL, NEW KNOWLEDGE ON THE STANDING STOCKS AND PRODUCTION RATES OF CALCIUM CARBONATE BY COCCOLITHOPHORES, IN THE CHUKCHI AND BEAUFORT SEAS. THESE PROPOSED MEASUREMENTS WILL BE THE FIRST-EVER, DIRECT 14C MEASUREMENTS OF COCCOLITHOPHORE CALCIFICATION IN THE AO, AS OPPOSED TO INDIRECT ESTIMATES BASED ON CARBONATE SYSTEM PARAMETER OR OCEAN COLOR. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? FIRST, PIC REPRESENTS THE MOST IMPORTANT BALLAST MATERIAL RESPONSIBLE FOR SINKING POC, WHICH DRIVES THE BIOLOGICAL PUMP. INDEED, THE FUTURE OF CALCIFICATION AND PIC PRODUCTION REPRESENTS THE FUTURE OF THE OCEAN'S BIOLOGICAL PUMP. MOREOVER, EVEN AT TYPICAL, NON-BLOOM CONCENTRATIONS, COCCOLITH PIC IS A SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTOR TO THE OCEAN ALBEDO. IN SUMMER, THEY LIKELY HAVE EVEN GREATER IMPACT IN THE AO WHEN EXTENSIVE COCCOLITHOPHORE BLOOMS FORM. SECOND, GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ARE BRINGING UNPRECEDENTED CHANGES TO THE AO BY A) MELTING THE SEASONAL PLUS PERMANENT SEA ICE COVER, AND B) SLOWLY DECREASING THE PH OVER THE NEXT CENTURY. DECREASING SEA ICE COVER WILL LIKELY BRING ABOUT A MAJOR BIOLOGICAL SHIFT IN THE BOREAL POLAR BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE (LONGHURST ET AL .. 1995), MAKING IT MORE SUB-ARCTIC IN CHARACTER. THIS IS HYPOTHESIZED TO BE ALLOWING THE CURRENT INVASION OF COCCOLITHOPHORES TO THE AO OVER THE LAST DECADE. LESS SEA ICE COVER MAY ALSO ALLOW MORE AIR-SEA INFLUX OF ANTHROPOGENIC C02, THE CAUSE OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION; THIS IS EXPECTED TO HAVE THE LARGEST NEGATIVE IMPACT ON CALCIFIERS AT HIGH LATITUDES DUE TO LOWER CALCITE AND ARAGONITE SATURATION STATES THERE. OUR BIO-OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS WILL ALLOW CRITICAL REVISIONS TO PIC AND CALCIFICATION ALGORITHMS FOR THE AO, TECHNICALLY IMPOSSIBLE TO DO NOW DUE TO A PAUCITY OF SHIP DATA. ARMED WITH THESE VALIDATED ALGORITHMS, OUR PROPOSED RETROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION OF OCEAN COLOR IMAGERY FOR PIC AND CALCIFICATION IN THE AO WILL BE CRITICAL TO DISCERN LONG TIME-SCALE CHANGES IN AO CALCIFIED ASSOCIATED WITH CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX10AT67G  
Monday, December 8, 2014
$214,490.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROJECT WILL CONTINUE THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS) WHICH IS A 35+YEAR, NASA-CENTRIC, FIELD PROGRAM THAT CROSSES THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) TO COLLECT BIO-OPTICAL, HYDROGRAPHICAL, BIOLOGICAL, BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL (INCLUDING CARBON-RELEVANT) DATA FOR USE IN SATELLITE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION STUDIES, AS WELL AS A LONG-TERM TRANSECT TIME SERIES. WE PROPOSE TO USE A COMBINATION OF SATELLITE AND GNATS DATA (SHIPBOARD AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS) TO CONSTRAIN A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE. THE OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT GNATS HAS PROVIDED CRITICAL CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR SEAWIFS, MODIS, AND VIIRS SENSORS, AS WELL AS INSIGHTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC CARBON CYCLE CHANGES IN THE GOM, A SEMI-ENCLOSED SHELF SEA, WITH STRONG LAND-SEA CONNECTIONS VIA 25 SURROUNDING WATERSHEDS. WE DIRECT THIS PROPOSAL TO THE SECOND RESEARCH THEME OF THE NASA ROSES 13 CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE PROGRAM: CARBON DYNAMICS ALONG TERRESTRIAL-AQUATIC INTERFACES, INCLUDING LAND-OCEAN, LAND-FRESHWATER, AND COASTAL OCEAN REGIONS. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GOM, INCLUDING ITS CARBON CYCLE. THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY RELEVANT TO NASA (GIVEN THE NASA-CENTRIC GNATS SAMPLING) AND SECONDARILY TO NOAA, SPECIFICALLY FOR WORK ON PRODUCTIVITY, ALGAL BIOMASS, AND PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF U. S. COASTAL WATERS, AS WELL AS CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF THE NPP/VIIRS SENSOR. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS MEASURES ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE: PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; CALCITE), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC; E.G., CO2, HCO3-, AND CO3=, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO PH AND ALKALINITY). THESE FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE (INCLUDING RESERVOIRS AND FLUXES) PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING THE COASTAL OCEAN, FROM CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY (I.E. POC VARIABILITY THROUGH TIME ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN HYDROGRAPHY, DIFFERENT PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, ETC.), LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT (I.E. DOC AND POC VARIABILITY CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS), AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION (I.E. VARIABILITY IN DIC AND PIC CAUSED BY CHANGES IN CARBONATE SATURATION). SIMPLY PUT, THE ONLY WAY TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE THROUGH A COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH. THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL TO BE USED FOR THE GULF OF MAINE CARBON CYCLE CONSISTS OF SIZE-STRUCTURED CARBON POOLS OF DETRITAL MATERIAL, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES RANGING FROM PICOPLANKTON TO MICROPLANKTON, AND A SIZE-BASED ZOOPLANKTON PREDATOR GROUP. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS WILL BE DETERMINED BY BOTH SIZE AND FUNCTIONAL ROLE, AND THE MODEL WILL BE FORCED BY GOM PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. WE WILL VALIDATE THE MODEL AGAINST GNATS DATA, AND TEST THE ABILITY OF REMOTELY-SENSED PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, COUPLED WITH THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL, TO REPRODUCE THE OBSERVED DYNAMICS. WE WILL THEN USE THE MODEL TO TEST HYPOTHESES REGARDING THE FATE OF CARBON RESULTING FROM CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES SUCH AS INCREASED PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE. ANTICIPATED SCIENTIFIC OUTCOMES FROM THIS WORK WILL BE A) A LONGER DURATION, NASA-CENTRIC, COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT CAN RESOLVE CLIMATOLOGICAL PHENOMENA SPANNING TIME SCALES OF DAYS TO DECADES AND B) A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL BASED ON GNATS THAT USES REMOTELY-SENSED, SHIP AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE DATA TO CONSTRAIN THE MODEL AND TEST HYPOTHESES RELEVANT TO EACH PART OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AM77G  
Monday, September 1, 2014
$8,700.00
1300: COMMERCE, DEPARTMENT OF
WE133F: WESTERN FIELD DELEGATES NMFS

PO Purchase Order
IGF::OT::IGF STABLE ISOTOPE
B516: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ANIMAL/FISHERIES

  DOCWE133F14SE3666  
Tuesday, August 19, 2014
$20,000.00
1400: INTERIOR, DEPARTMENT OF THE
00001: CONTRACTING AND GENERAL SERVICES DIV

PO Purchase Order
IGF::OT::IGF TITLE: PACIFIC REEFS-SEAWATER MONITORING
B526: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- OCEANOLOGICAL

  INF14PX02098  
Thursday, July 24, 2014
$214,490.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROJECT WILL CONTINUE THE GULF OF MAINE NORTH ATLANTIC TIME SERIES (GNATS) WHICH IS A 35+YEAR, NASA-CENTRIC, FIELD PROGRAM THAT CROSSES THE GULF OF MAINE (GOM) TO COLLECT BIO-OPTICAL, HYDROGRAPHICAL, BIOLOGICAL, BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL (INCLUDING CARBON-RELEVANT) DATA FOR USE IN SATELLITE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION STUDIES, AS WELL AS A LONG-TERM TRANSECT TIME SERIES. WE PROPOSE TO USE A COMBINATION OF SATELLITE AND GNATS DATA (SHIPBOARD AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS) TO CONSTRAIN A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE. THE OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT GNATS HAS PROVIDED CRITICAL CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR SEAWIFS, MODIS, AND VIIRS SENSORS, AS WELL AS INSIGHTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC CARBON CYCLE CHANGES IN THE GOM, A SEMI-ENCLOSED SHELF SEA, WITH STRONG LAND-SEA CONNECTIONS VIA 25 SURROUNDING WATERSHEDS. WE DIRECT THIS PROPOSAL TO THE SECOND RESEARCH THEME OF THE NASA ROSES 13 CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE PROGRAM: CARBON DYNAMICS ALONG TERRESTRIAL-AQUATIC INTERFACES, INCLUDING LAND-OCEAN, LAND-FRESHWATER, AND COASTAL OCEAN REGIONS. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GOM, INCLUDING ITS CARBON CYCLE. THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY RELEVANT TO NASA (GIVEN THE NASA-CENTRIC GNATS SAMPLING) AND SECONDARILY TO NOAA, SPECIFICALLY FOR WORK ON PRODUCTIVITY, ALGAL BIOMASS, AND PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF U. S. COASTAL WATERS, AS WELL AS CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF THE NPP/VIIRS SENSOR. ALONG WITH A WHOLE HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES, GNATS MEASURES ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE: PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON (POC), PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (PIC; CALCITE), DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON (DIC; E.G., CO2, HCO3-, AND CO3=, WHICH ARE COUPLED TO PH AND ALKALINITY). THESE FOUR PARTS OF THE CARBON CYCLE (INCLUDING RESERVOIRS AND FLUXES) PROVIDE INSIGHTS ABOUT THE MAJOR PROCESSES AFFECTING THE COASTAL OCEAN, FROM CHANGES IN PRODUCTIVITY (I.E. POC VARIABILITY THROUGH TIME ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN HYDROGRAPHY, DIFFERENT PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, ETC.), LAND-SEA CARBON TRANSPORT (I.E. DOC AND POC VARIABILITY CAUSED BY MAJOR RIVERINE FLOOD EVENTS AND DROUGHTS), AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION (I.E. VARIABILITY IN DIC AND PIC CAUSED BY CHANGES IN CARBONATE SATURATION). SIMPLY PUT, THE ONLY WAY TO PREDICT CHANGES TO ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE MARINE CARBON CYCLE AS A FUNCTION OF LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE WILL BE THROUGH A COMBINED MEASUREMENT AND MODELING APPROACH. THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL TO BE USED FOR THE GULF OF MAINE CARBON CYCLE CONSISTS OF SIZE-STRUCTURED CARBON POOLS OF DETRITAL MATERIAL, PHYTOPLANKTON FUNCTIONAL TYPES RANGING FROM PICOPLANKTON TO MICROPLANKTON, AND A SIZE-BASED ZOOPLANKTON PREDATOR GROUP. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS WILL BE DETERMINED BY BOTH SIZE AND FUNCTIONAL ROLE, AND THE MODEL WILL BE FORCED BY GOM PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. WE WILL VALIDATE THE MODEL AGAINST GNATS DATA, AND TEST THE ABILITY OF REMOTELY-SENSED PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, COUPLED WITH THE ECOSYSTEM MODEL, TO REPRODUCE THE OBSERVED DYNAMICS. WE WILL THEN USE THE MODEL TO TEST HYPOTHESES REGARDING THE FATE OF CARBON RESULTING FROM CLIMATE-DRIVEN CHANGES SUCH AS INCREASED PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE. ANTICIPATED SCIENTIFIC OUTCOMES FROM THIS WORK WILL BE A) A LONGER DURATION, NASA-CENTRIC, COASTAL TIME SERIES THAT CAN RESOLVE CLIMATOLOGICAL PHENOMENA SPANNING TIME SCALES OF DAYS TO DECADES AND B) A COUPLED PHYSICAL/ECOSYSTEM MODEL BASED ON GNATS THAT USES REMOTELY-SENSED, SHIP AND AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE DATA TO CONSTRAIN THE MODEL AND TEST HYPOTHESES RELEVANT TO EACH PART OF THE GOM CARBON CYCLE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AM77G  
Tuesday, July 22, 2014
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROPOSAL DEALS WITH THE MODIS ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON ("PIC" OR SUSPENDED CALCIUM CARBONATE). THE ALGORITHM WORKS BY DERIVING PIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING FROM WHICH PIC CONCENTRATION ULTIMATELY IS CALCULATED. IT PREDOMINANTLY DETECTS CACO3 OF COCCOLITHOPHORES DUE TO THEIR RELATIVELY HIGH ABUNDANCE IN THE SEA AND EXTREMELY HIGH PIC-SPECIFIC SCATTERING PROPERTIES. THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM, AS WELL AS SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE PIC DATA PRODUCT, IS A RELATIVELY SMALL SEA-TRUTH DATA SET, NOT YET GLOBAL IN SCOPE, FOR VALIDATION PURPOSES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE 50% ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE (OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS MADE ON THREE CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER-SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE SOUTHERN ATLANTIC, INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS) AND 50% SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION DATA SETS. SPECIFICALLY, WE WILL EXAMINE 1) IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MODIS PIC ALGORITHM THROUGH MORE GLOBALLY REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING OF PIC AND ITS OPTICAL PROPERTIES, 2) OPTIMIZATION OF MODIS PIC ALGORITHM ACCURACY USING MISR BI-DIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS AND 3) A MISSION-LONG TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF PIC (EXAMINING TRENDS GLOBALLY, BY LATITUDE AND BY OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE). NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR ANY OF THE ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE WORK; TWO OF THE CRUISES (S. ATLANTIC AND S. INDIAN) ARE ALREADY FUNDED BY NSF FOR UNRELATED BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF COCCOLITHOPHORES. WE HAVE BEEN INVITED TO JOIN A THIRD NEW ZEALAND CRUISE TO THE S. PACIFIC. IN ALL CRUISES, WE WILL SAMPLE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE "GREAT COCCOLITHOPHORE BELT", AN 88X10^6 SQUARE KILOMETER FEATURE OF CALCITE-ENHANCED WATER THAT EXTENDS AROUND THE GLOBE IN THE REGION OF THE ANTARCTIC SUBPOLAR FRONT. WE HERE PROPOSE TO INCORPORATE BIO-OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC TWO-BAND/THREE-BAND ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE, AND, EQUALLY IMPORTANT, TO PROCESS THESE OPTICAL DATA TO THE LEVEL OF NASA CLIMATE DATA RECORDS. FOR ALL CRUISES, WE WILL MAKE A COMBINATION OF UNDERWAY SHIP MEASUREMENTS FOR IOPS AND AOPS, WHICH WHEN COMBINED WITH DISCRETE PARTICLE ANALYSES WILL PROVIDE NEW VALIDATION DATA FOR THE ALGORITHM. WE WILL DO STATISTICAL ANALYSES IN ORDER TO EXTRAPOLATE SATELLITE PIC MEASUREMENTS FROM THE TOP OPTICAL DEPTH TO THE ENTIRE EUPHOTIC ZONE (OR DEEPER), DEPTHS EFFECTIVELY INVISIBLE TO THE OCEAN COLOR SATELLITES BUT OF GREAT BIOGEOCHEMICAL RELEVANCE, NONETHELESS. FUNDS ARE REQUESTED FOR ADDING A FLUOROMETER FOR COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER TO OUR SAMPLING SYSTEM, SO THAT WE CAN BETTER EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF CDOM ON THE PIC ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE. THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS: 1) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH: (1) DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, (2) QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES; AND (3) PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. THE NASA OBB STRATEGIC PLAN LISTS TWO PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS THAT WILL BE FEATURED IN THIS WORK: (A) ALLOW DISCRIMINATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN ORDER TO DEDUCE THE FATE OF CARBON IN THE OCEAN AND QUANTIFY ITS ROLE AS EITHER A SOURCE OR SINK FOR CARBON; AND (B) MEASUREMENTS OF THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND VARIABILITY OF PLANT GROUPS WITH IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS TO FURTHER REFINE OUR ABILITY TO QUANTIFY GLOBAL SOURCES AND SINKS, PROVIDING ACCURACY SUFFICIENT TO BALANCE THE GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX11AO72G  
Tuesday, July 2, 2013
$196,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROPOSAL DEALS WITH THE MODIS ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON ("PIC" OR SUSPENDED CALCIUM CARBONATE). THE ALGORITHM WORKS BY DERIVING PIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING FROM WHICH PIC CONCENTRATION ULTIMATELY IS CALCULATED. IT PREDOMINANTLY DETECTS CACO3 OF COCCOLITHOPHORES DUE TO THEIR RELATIVELY HIGH ABUNDANCE IN THE SEA AND EXTREMELY HIGH PIC-SPECIFIC SCATTERING PROPERTIES. THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM, AS WELL AS SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE PIC DATA PRODUCT, IS A RELATIVELY SMALL SEA-TRUTH DATA SET, NOT YET GLOBAL IN SCOPE, FOR VALIDATION PURPOSES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE 50% ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE (OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS MADE ON THREE CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER-SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE SOUTHERN ATLANTIC, INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS) AND 50% SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION DATA SETS. SPECIFICALLY, WE WILL EXAMINE 1) IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MODIS PIC ALGORITHM THROUGH MORE GLOBALLY REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING OF PIC AND ITS OPTICAL PROPERTIES, 2) OPTIMIZATION OF MODIS PIC ALGORITHM ACCURACY USING MISR BI-DIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS AND 3) A MISSION-LONG TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF PIC (EXAMINING TRENDS GLOBALLY, BY LATITUDE AND BY OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE). NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR ANY OF THE ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE WORK; TWO OF THE CRUISES (S. ATLANTIC AND S. INDIAN) ARE ALREADY FUNDED BY NSF FOR UNRELATED BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF COCCOLITHOPHORES. WE HAVE BEEN INVITED TO JOIN A THIRD NEW ZEALAND CRUISE TO THE S. PACIFIC. IN ALL CRUISES, WE WILL SAMPLE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE "GREAT COCCOLITHOPHORE BELT", AN 88X10^6 SQUARE KILOMETER FEATURE OF CALCITE-ENHANCED WATER THAT EXTENDS AROUND THE GLOBE IN THE REGION OF THE ANTARCTIC SUBPOLAR FRONT. WE HERE PROPOSE TO INCORPORATE BIO-OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC TWO-BAND/THREE-BAND ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE, AND, EQUALLY IMPORTANT, TO PROCESS THESE OPTICAL DATA TO THE LEVEL OF NASA CLIMATE DATA RECORDS. FOR ALL CRUISES, WE WILL MAKE A COMBINATION OF UNDERWAY SHIP MEASUREMENTS FOR IOPS AND AOPS, WHICH WHEN COMBINED WITH DISCRETE PARTICLE ANALYSES WILL PROVIDE NEW VALIDATION DATA FOR THE ALGORITHM. WE WILL DO STATISTICAL ANALYSES IN ORDER TO EXTRAPOLATE SATELLITE PIC MEASUREMENTS FROM THE TOP OPTICAL DEPTH TO THE ENTIRE EUPHOTIC ZONE (OR DEEPER), DEPTHS EFFECTIVELY INVISIBLE TO THE OCEAN COLOR SATELLITES BUT OF GREAT BIOGEOCHEMICAL RELEVANCE, NONETHELESS. FUNDS ARE REQUESTED FOR ADDING A FLUOROMETER FOR COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER TO OUR SAMPLING SYSTEM, SO THAT WE CAN BETTER EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF CDOM ON THE PIC ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE. THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS: 1) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH: (1) DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, (2) QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES; AND (3) PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. THE NASA OBB STRATEGIC PLAN LISTS TWO PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS THAT WILL BE FEATURED IN THIS WORK: (A) ALLOW DISCRIMINATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN ORDER TO DEDUCE THE FATE OF CARBON IN THE OCEAN AND QUANTIFY ITS ROLE AS EITHER A SOURCE OR SINK FOR CARBON; AND (B) MEASUREMENTS OF THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND VARIABILITY OF PLANT GROUPS WITH IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS TO FURTHER REFINE OUR ABILITY TO QUANTIFY GLOBAL SOURCES AND SINKS, PROVIDING ACCURACY SUFFICIENT TO BALANCE THE GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX11AO72G  
Thursday, October 25, 2012
($135.00)
1300: COMMERCE, DEPARTMENT OF
EE133F: EASTERN FIELD DELEGATES NMFS

PO Purchase Order
DEOBLIGATION OF FUNDS AND CLOSEOUT.
6810: CHEMICALS

  DOCES133F08SU2146  
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
$208,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROPOSAL DEALS WITH THE MODIS ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON ("PIC" OR SUSPENDED CALCIUM CARBONATE). THE ALGORITHM WORKS BY DERIVING PIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING FROM WHICH PIC CONCENTRATION ULTIMATELY IS CALCULATED. IT PREDOMINANTLY DETECTS CACO3 OF COCCOLITHOPHORES DUE TO THEIR RELATIVELY HIGH ABUNDANCE IN THE SEA AND EXTREMELY HIGH PIC-SPECIFIC SCATTERING PROPERTIES. THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM, AS WELL AS SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE PIC DATA PRODUCT, IS A RELATIVELY SMALL SEA-TRUTH DATA SET, NOT YET GLOBAL IN SCOPE, FOR VALIDATION PURPOSES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE 50% ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE (OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS MADE ON THREE CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER-SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE SOUTHERN ATLANTIC, INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS) AND 50% SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION DATA SETS. SPECIFICALLY, WE WILL EXAMINE 1) IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MODIS PIC ALGORITHM THROUGH MORE GLOBALLY REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING OF PIC AND ITS OPTICAL PROPERTIES, 2) OPTIMIZATION OF MODIS PIC ALGORITHM ACCURACY USING MISR BI-DIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS AND 3) A MISSION-LONG TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF PIC (EXAMINING TRENDS GLOBALLY, BY LATITUDE AND BY OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE). NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR ANY OF THE ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE WORK; TWO OF THE CRUISES (S. ATLANTIC AND S. INDIAN) ARE ALREADY FUNDED BY NSF FOR UNRELATED BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF COCCOLITHOPHORES. WE HAVE BEEN INVITED TO JOIN A THIRD NEW ZEALAND CRUISE TO THE S. PACIFIC. IN ALL CRUISES, WE WILL SAMPLE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE "GREAT COCCOLITHOPHORE BELT", AN 88X10^6 SQUARE KILOMETER FEATURE OF CALCITE-ENHANCED WATER THAT EXTENDS AROUND THE GLOBE IN THE REGION OF THE ANTARCTIC SUBPOLAR FRONT. WE HERE PROPOSE TO INCORPORATE BIO-OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC TWO-BAND/THREE-BAND ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE, AND, EQUALLY IMPORTANT, TO PROCESS THESE OPTICAL DATA TO THE LEVEL OF NASA CLIMATE DATA RECORDS. FOR ALL CRUISES, WE WILL MAKE A COMBINATION OF UNDERWAY SHIP MEASUREMENTS FOR IOPS AND AOPS, WHICH WHEN COMBINED WITH DISCRETE PARTICLE ANALYSES WILL PROVIDE NEW VALIDATION DATA FOR THE ALGORITHM. WE WILL DO STATISTICAL ANALYSES IN ORDER TO EXTRAPOLATE SATELLITE PIC MEASUREMENTS FROM THE TOP OPTICAL DEPTH TO THE ENTIRE EUPHOTIC ZONE (OR DEEPER), DEPTHS EFFECTIVELY INVISIBLE TO THE OCEAN COLOR SATELLITES BUT OF GREAT BIOGEOCHEMICAL RELEVANCE, NONETHELESS. FUNDS ARE REQUESTED FOR ADDING A FLUOROMETER FOR COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER TO OUR SAMPLING SYSTEM, SO THAT WE CAN BETTER EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF CDOM ON THE PIC ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE. THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS: 1) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH: (1) DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, (2) QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES; AND (3) PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. THE NASA OBB STRATEGIC PLAN LISTS TWO PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS THAT WILL BE FEATURED IN THIS WORK: (A) ALLOW DISCRIMINATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN ORDER TO DEDUCE THE FATE OF CARBON IN THE OCEAN AND QUANTIFY ITS ROLE AS EITHER A SOURCE OR SINK FOR CARBON; AND (B) MEASUREMENTS OF THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND VARIABILITY OF PLANT GROUPS WITH IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS TO FURTHER REFINE OUR ABILITY TO QUANTIFY GLOBAL SOURCES AND SINKS, PROVIDING ACCURACY SUFFICIENT TO BALANCE THE GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET.
AR21: R&amp;D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX11AO72G  
Tuesday, September 20, 2011
($476.37)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE RECENT TREND OF DECLINING WINTER AND SPRING SNOW COVER OVER EURASIA IS CAUSING A LAND-OCEAN THERMAL GRADIENT THAT IS PARTICULARLY FAVORABLE TO STRONGER SOUTHWEST (SUMMER) MONSOONAL WINDS (GOES ET AL., 2005). SINCE 1997, SEA SURFACE WINDS HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENING IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA. THIS ESCALATION IN THE INTENSITY OF SUMMER MONSOONAL WINDS ACCOMPANIED BY ENHANCED UPWELLING ALONG THE COASTS OF SOMALIA AND OMAN, AND A&gt;350% INCREASE IN AVERAGE SUMMER TIME PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA, RAISES THE INTRIGUING POSSIBILITY THAT THE CURRENT WARMING TREND IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE COULD MAKE THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE. THIS THREE-YEAR DATA (SHIP AND SATELLITE) ANALYSIS, DATA ASSIMILATION AND REGIONAL MODELING EFFORT IS AIMED AT PROBING REMOTE AND LOCAL CONTROLS ON REGIONAL CIRCULATION AND PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTIVITY AND MARINE LIVING RESOURCES IN THE ARABIAN SEA AS THEY RELATE TO CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE OUR GOALS, WE HAVE PUT TOGETHER AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM CONSISTING OF OCEANOGRAPHERS (PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL), ATMOSPHERIC AND FISHERIES SCIENTISTS WHO WILL WORK TOGETHER TO: (1) EXAMINE THE DOMINANT SCALES OF COUPLING BETWEEN ATMOSPHERIC FORCING (SNOW COVER, LAND AND SEA RADIATION BUDGETS, WIND FIELDS) AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC RESPONSES (OCEAN CIRCULATION, MIXED LAYER PHYSICS AND STRATIFICATION EVOLUTION, PHYTOPLANKTON BLOOMS). (2) DETERMINE HOW LARGE-SCALE CLIMATIC EVENTS (IOD, EL-NI O) CONTRIBUTE TO INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL VARIABILITY IN BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY. (3) DEVELOP A COUPLED PHYSICAL-BIOLOGICAL MODEL CAPABLE OF SIMULATING CLIMATE MEDIATED CHANGES IN THE CIRCULATION OF THE ARABIAN SEA AND PREDICTING THE RESPONSE OF THE ARABIAN SEA ECOSYSTEM AND ITS LIVING MARINE RESOURCES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON SEASONAL, INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL TIME SCALES. OUR ACTIVITIES FALL UNDER NASA'S EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH PROGRAM WHICH EMPHASIZES INTER-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE THAT ADDRESS NATURAL AND MAN-MADE CHANGES IN OUR ENVIRONMENT ON VARIOUS TIME SCALES WHICH AFFECT THE HABITABILITY OF OUR PLANET. THE TWO FOCUS AREAS THAT ARE SOUGHT TO BE COVERED UNDER THIS PROPOSAL ARE: I) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE AND II) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS. BY INTEGRATING NASA'S OBSERVATIONAL CAPABILITIES WITH INNOVATIVE MODELING, IT AIMS TO PROVIDE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING: (1) HOW IS THE GLOBAL OCEAN CIRCULATION VARYING ON INTERANNUAL, DECADAL AND LONGER TIME SCALES? (2) HOW CAN PREDICTIONS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE BE IMPROVED? 1. WITH OTHERS (2005) WARMING OF THE EURASIAN LANDMASS IS MAKING THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE, SCIENCE, 308: 545-547.
AR21: R&amp;D-SPACE SCIENCE &amp; APPL-B RES

  NNX07AK82G  
Friday, August 19, 2011
$245,999.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS PROPOSAL DEALS WITH THE MODIS ALGORITHM FOR PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON ("PIC" OR SUSPENDED CALCIUM CARBONATE). THE ALGORITHM WORKS BY DERIVING PIC OPTICAL BACKSCATTERING FROM WHICH PIC CONCENTRATION ULTIMATELY IS CALCULATED. IT PREDOMINANTLY DETECTS CACO3 OF COCCOLITHOPHORES DUE TO THEIR RELATIVELY HIGH ABUNDANCE IN THE SEA AND EXTREMELY HIGH PIC-SPECIFIC SCATTERING PROPERTIES. THE MAJOR CHALLENGE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PIC ALGORITHM, AS WELL AS SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE PIC DATA PRODUCT, IS A RELATIVELY SMALL SEA-TRUTH DATA SET, NOT YET GLOBAL IN SCOPE, FOR VALIDATION PURPOSES. THE WORK PROPOSED HERE WILL INVOLVE 50% ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE (OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS MADE ON THREE CRUISES FROM VASTLY UNDER-SAMPLED REGIONS OF THE SOUTHERN ATLANTIC, INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS) AND 50% SCIENCE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION DATA SETS. SPECIFICALLY, WE WILL EXAMINE 1) IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MODIS PIC ALGORITHM THROUGH MORE GLOBALLY REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING OF PIC AND ITS OPTICAL PROPERTIES, 2) OPTIMIZATION OF MODIS PIC ALGORITHM ACCURACY USING MISR BI-DIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS AND 3) A MISSION-LONG TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF PIC (EXAMINING TRENDS GLOBALLY, BY LATITUDE AND BY OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE). NASA WILL INCUR NO SHIP TIME EXPENSES FOR ANY OF THE ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE WORK; TWO OF THE CRUISES (S. ATLANTIC AND S. INDIAN) ARE ALREADY FUNDED BY NSF FOR UNRELATED BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF COCCOLITHOPHORES. WE HAVE BEEN INVITED TO JOIN A THIRD NEW ZEALAND CRUISE TO THE S. PACIFIC. IN ALL CRUISES, WE WILL SAMPLE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE "GREAT COCCOLITHOPHORE BELT", AN 88X10^6 SQUARE KILOMETER FEATURE OF CALCITE-ENHANCED WATER THAT EXTENDS AROUND THE GLOBE IN THE REGION OF THE ANTARCTIC SUBPOLAR FRONT. WE HERE PROPOSE TO INCORPORATE BIO-OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS, SPECIFICALLY IN SUPPORT OF THE NASA PIC TWO-BAND/THREE-BAND ALGORITHM MAINTENANCE, AND, EQUALLY IMPORTANT, TO PROCESS THESE OPTICAL DATA TO THE LEVEL OF NASA CLIMATE DATA RECORDS. FOR ALL CRUISES, WE WILL MAKE A COMBINATION OF UNDERWAY SHIP MEASUREMENTS FOR IOPS AND AOPS, WHICH WHEN COMBINED WITH DISCRETE PARTICLE ANALYSES WILL PROVIDE NEW VALIDATION DATA FOR THE ALGORITHM. WE WILL DO STATISTICAL ANALYSES IN ORDER TO EXTRAPOLATE SATELLITE PIC MEASUREMENTS FROM THE TOP OPTICAL DEPTH TO THE ENTIRE EUPHOTIC ZONE (OR DEEPER), DEPTHS EFFECTIVELY INVISIBLE TO THE OCEAN COLOR SATELLITES BUT OF GREAT BIOGEOCHEMICAL RELEVANCE, NONETHELESS. FUNDS ARE REQUESTED FOR ADDING A FLUOROMETER FOR COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER TO OUR SAMPLING SYSTEM, SO THAT WE CAN BETTER EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF CDOM ON THE PIC ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE. THIS PROPOSAL ADDRESSES 2 OF THE 6 EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS: 1) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS PLUS 2) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE. IT SUPPORTS 3 OBJECTIVES IDENTIFIED FOR NASA CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH: (1) DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, (2) QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS AND CARBON FLUXES; AND (3) PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING AND TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING, AND AS INPUTS FOR IMPROVED CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS. THE NASA OBB STRATEGIC PLAN LISTS TWO PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS THAT WILL BE FEATURED IN THIS WORK: (A) ALLOW DISCRIMINATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN ORDER TO DEDUCE THE FATE OF CARBON IN THE OCEAN AND QUANTIFY ITS ROLE AS EITHER A SOURCE OR SINK FOR CARBON; AND (B) MEASUREMENTS OF THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND VARIABILITY OF PLANT GROUPS WITH IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS TO FURTHER REFINE OUR ABILITY TO QUANTIFY GLOBAL SOURCES AND SINKS, PROVIDING ACCURACY SUFFICIENT TO BALANCE THE GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET.
AR21: R&amp;D-SPACE SCIENCE &amp; APPL-B RES

  NNX11AO72G  
Tuesday, July 19, 2011
($17.55)
8000: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Wednesday, October 13, 2010
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE RECENT TREND OF DECLINING WINTER AND SPRING SNOW COVER OVER EURASIA IS CAUSING A LAND-OCEAN THERMAL GRADIENT THAT IS PARTICULARLY FAVORABLE TO STRONGER SOUTHWEST (SUMMER) MONSOONAL WINDS (GOES ET AL., 2005). SINCE 1997, SEA SURFACE WINDS HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENING IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA. THIS ESCALATION IN THE INTENSITY OF SUMMER MONSOONAL WINDS ACCOMPANIED BY ENHANCED UPWELLING ALONG THE COASTS OF SOMALIA AND OMAN, AND A&gt;350% INCREASE IN AVERAGE SUMMER TIME PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA, RAISES THE INTRIGUING POSSIBILITY THAT THE CURRENT WARMING TREND IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE COULD MAKE THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE. THIS THREE-YEAR DATA (SHIP AND SATELLITE) ANALYSIS, DATA ASSIMILATION AND REGIONAL MODELING EFFORT IS AIMED AT PROBING REMOTE AND LOCAL CONTROLS ON REGIONAL CIRCULATION AND PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTIVITY AND MARINE LIVING RESOURCES IN THE ARABIAN SEA AS THEY RELATE TO CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE OUR GOALS, WE HAVE PUT TOGETHER AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM CONSISTING OF OCEANOGRAPHERS (PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL), ATMOSPHERIC AND FISHERIES SCIENTISTS WHO WILL WORK TOGETHER TO: (1) EXAMINE THE DOMINANT SCALES OF COUPLING BETWEEN ATMOSPHERIC FORCING (SNOW COVER, LAND AND SEA RADIATION BUDGETS, WIND FIELDS) AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC RESPONSES (OCEAN CIRCULATION, MIXED LAYER PHYSICS AND STRATIFICATION EVOLUTION, PHYTOPLANKTON BLOOMS). (2) DETERMINE HOW LARGE-SCALE CLIMATIC EVENTS (IOD, EL-NI O) CONTRIBUTE TO INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL VARIABILITY IN BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY. (3) DEVELOP A COUPLED PHYSICAL-BIOLOGICAL MODEL CAPABLE OF SIMULATING CLIMATE MEDIATED CHANGES IN THE CIRCULATION OF THE ARABIAN SEA AND PREDICTING THE RESPONSE OF THE ARABIAN SEA ECOSYSTEM AND ITS LIVING MARINE RESOURCES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON SEASONAL, INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL TIME SCALES. OUR ACTIVITIES FALL UNDER NASA'S EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH PROGRAM WHICH EMPHASIZES INTER-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE THAT ADDRESS NATURAL AND MAN-MADE CHANGES IN OUR ENVIRONMENT ON VARIOUS TIME SCALES WHICH AFFECT THE HABITABILITY OF OUR PLANET. THE TWO FOCUS AREAS THAT ARE SOUGHT TO BE COVERED UNDER THIS PROPOSAL ARE: I) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE AND II) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS. BY INTEGRATING NASA'S OBSERVATIONAL CAPABILITIES WITH INNOVATIVE MODELING, IT AIMS TO PROVIDE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING: (1) HOW IS THE GLOBAL OCEAN CIRCULATION VARYING ON INTERANNUAL, DECADAL AND LONGER TIME SCALES? (2) HOW CAN PREDICTIONS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE BE IMPROVED? 1. WITH OTHERS (2005) WARMING OF THE EURASIAN LANDMASS IS MAKING THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE, SCIENCE, 308: 545-547.
AR21: R&amp;D-SPACE SCIENCE &amp; APPL-B RES

  NNX07AK82G  
Tuesday, January 26, 2010
$0.00
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE RECENT TREND OF DECLINING WINTER AND SPRING SNOW COVER OVER EURASIA IS CAUSING A LAND-OCEAN THERMAL GRADIENT THAT IS PARTICULARLY FAVORABLE TO STRONGER SOUTHWEST (SUMMER) MONSOONAL WINDS (GOES ET AL., 2005). SINCE 1997, SEA SURFACE WINDS HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENING IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA. THIS ESCALATION IN THE INTENSITY OF SUMMER MONSOONAL WINDS ACCOMPANIED BY ENHANCED UPWELLING ALONG THE COASTS OF SOMALIA AND OMAN, AND A &gt;350% INCREASE IN AVERAGE SUMMER TIME PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA, RAISES THE INTRIGUING POSSIBILITY THAT THE CURRENT WARMING TREND IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE COULD MAKE THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE. THIS THREE-YEAR DATA (SHIP AND SATELLITE) ANALYSIS, DATA ASSIMILATION AND REGIONAL MODELING EFFORT IS AIMED AT PROBING REMOTE AND LOCAL CONTROLS ON REGIONAL CIRCULATION AND PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTIVITY AND MARINE LIVING RESOURCES IN THE ARABIAN SEA AS THEY RELATE TO CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE OUR GOALS, WE HAVE PUT TOGETHER AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM CONSISTING OF OCEANOGRAPHERS (PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL), ATMOSPHERIC AND FISHERIES SCIENTISTS WHO WILL WORK TOGETHER TO: (1) EXAMINE THE DOMINANT SCALES OF COUPLING BETWEEN ATMOSPHERIC FORCING (SNOW COVER, LAND AND SEA RADIATION BUDGETS, WIND FIELDS) AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC RESPONSES (OCEAN CIRCULATION, MIXED LAYER PHYSICS AND STRATIFICATION EVOLUTION, PHYTOPLANKTON BLOOMS). (2) DETERMINE HOW LARGE-SCALE CLIMATIC EVENTS (IOD, EL-NI O) CONTRIBUTE TO INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL VARIABILITY IN BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY. (3) DEVELOP A COUPLED PHYSICAL-BIOLOGICAL MODEL CAPABLE OF SIMULATING CLIMATE MEDIATED CHANGES IN THE CIRCULATION OF THE ARABIAN SEA AND PREDICTING THE RESPONSE OF THE ARABIAN SEA ECOSYSTEM AND ITS LIVING MARINE RESOURCES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON SEASONAL, INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL TIME SCALES. OUR ACTIVITIES FALL UNDER NASA'S EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH PROGRAM WHICH EMPHASIZES INTER-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE THAT ADDRESS NATURAL AND MAN-MADE CHANGES IN OUR ENVIRONMENT ON VARIOUS TIME SCALES WHICH AFFECT THE HABITABILITY OF OUR PLANET. THE TWO FOCUS AREAS THAT ARE SOUGHT TO BE COVERED UNDER THIS PROPOSAL ARE: I) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE AND II) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS. BY INTEGRATING NASA'S OBSERVATIONAL CAPABILITIES WITH INNOVATIVE MODELING, IT AIMS TO PROVIDE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING: (1) HOW IS THE GLOBAL OCEAN CIRCULATION VARYING ON INTERANNUAL, DECADAL AND LONGER TIME SCALES? (2) HOW CAN PREDICTIONS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE BE IMPROVED? 1. WITH OTHERS (2005) WARMING OF THE EURASIAN LANDMASS IS MAKING THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE, SCIENCE, 308: 545-547.
AR21: R&amp;D-SPACE SCIENCE &amp; APPL-B RES

  NNX07AK82G  
Monday, June 29, 2009
$217,655.00
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
JOAQUIM GOES / BIGELOW LABORATORY FOR OCEAN SCIENCES CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ECOSYSTEM OF THE ARABIAN SEA THE RECENT TREND OF DECLINING WINTER AND SPRING SNOW COVER OVER EURASIA IS CAUSING A LAND-OCEAN THERMAL GRADIENT THAT IS PARTICULARLY FAVORABLE TO STRONGER SOUTHWEST (SUMMER) MONSOONAL WINDS (GOES ET AL., 2005). SINCE 1997, SEA SURFACE WINDS HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENING IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA. THIS ESCALATION IN THE INTENSITY OF SUMMER MONSOONAL WINDS ACCOMPANIED BY ENHANCED UPWELLING ALONG THE COASTS OF SOMALIA AND OMAN, AND A &gt;350% INCREASE IN AVERAGE SUMMER TIME PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS IN THE WESTERN ARABIAN SEA, RAISES THE INTRIGUING POSSIBILITY THAT THE CURRENT WARMING TREND IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE COULD MAKE THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE. THIS THREE-YEAR DATA (SHIP AND SATELLITE) ANALYSIS, DATA ASSIMILATION AND REGIONAL MODELING EFFORT IS AIMED AT PROBING REMOTE AND LOCAL CONTROLS ON REGIONAL CIRCULATION AND PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTIVITY AND MARINE LIVING RESOURCES IN THE ARABIAN SEA AS THEY RELATE TO CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE OUR GOALS, WE HAVE PUT TOGETHER AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM CONSISTING OF OCEANOGRAPHERS (PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL), ATMOSPHERIC AND FISHERIES SCIENTISTS WHO WILL WORK TOGETHER TO: (1) EXAMINE THE DOMINANT SCALES OF COUPLING BETWEEN ATMOSPHERIC FORCING (SNOW COVER, LAND AND SEA RADIATION BUDGETS, WIND FIELDS) AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC RESPONSES (OCEAN CIRCULATION, MIXED LAYER PHYSICS AND STRATIFICATION EVOLUTION, PHYTOPLANKTON BLOOMS). (2) DETERMINE HOW LARGE-SCALE CLIMATIC EVENTS (IOD, EL-NI O) CONTRIBUTE TO INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL VARIABILITY IN BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY. (3) DEVELOP A COUPLED PHYSICAL-BIOLOGICAL MODEL CAPABLE OF SIMULATING CLIMATE MEDIATED CHANGES IN THE CIRCULATION OF THE ARABIAN SEA AND PREDICTING THE RESPONSE OF THE ARABIAN SEA ECOSYSTEM AND ITS LIVING MARINE RESOURCES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON SEASONAL, INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL TIME SCALES. OUR ACTIVITIES FALL UNDER NASA'S EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH PROGRAM WHICH EMPHASIZES INTER-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE THAT ADDRESS NATURAL AND MAN-MADE CHANGES IN OUR ENVIRONMENT ON VARIOUS TIME SCALES WHICH AFFECT THE HABITABILITY OF OUR PLANET. THE TWO FOCUS AREAS THAT ARE SOUGHT TO BE COVERED UNDER THIS PROPOSAL ARE: I) CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE AND II) CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS. BY INTEGRATING NASA'S OBSERVATIONAL CAPABILITIES WITH INNOVATIVE MODELING, IT AIMS TO PROVIDE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING: (1) HOW IS THE GLOBAL OCEAN CIRCULATION VARYING ON INTERANNUAL, DECADAL AND LONGER TIME SCALES? (2) HOW CAN PREDICTIONS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE BE IMPROVED? 1. GOES, J. I., T.G. PRASAD, H. DO R. GOMES, J. T. FASULLO (2005) WARMING OF THE EURASIAN LANDMASS IS MAKING THE ARABIAN SEA MORE PRODUCTIVE, SCIENCE, 308: 545-547.
AR21: R&amp;D-SPACE SCIENCE &amp; APPL-B RES

  NNX07AK82G  
Wednesday, June 24, 2009
$232,000.00
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
A PROPOSAL FOR REFINEMENT OF THE MODIS CALCITE ALGORITHM AND CAL/VAL ACTIVITES TOWARDS ASSEMBLY OF EARTH SYSTEM DATA RECORDS I PROPOSE TO PROVIDE CALIBRATION/VALIDATION DATA FOR REFINING THE MODIS PARTICULATE INORGANIC CARBON (`PIC OR CACO3) ALGORITHM AND TO PRODUCE EARTH SYSTEM DATA RECORDS OF SUSPENDED PIC CONCENTRATION. MY LAB HAS PERFORMED ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL TRANSECT CRUISES BETWEEN THE U.K. AND SOUTH AFRICA, PROVIDING CAL/VAL DATA FOR THE MODIS TWO- AND THREE-BAND PIC ALGORITHMS; THIS HAS PROVIDED OPTICAL AND HYDROGRAPHIC DATA, PLUS ANALYTICAL MEASUREMENTS FOR SEVERAL CRUISES TOTALING 135D AT SEA. MOREOVER, THE ORIGINAL PIC ALGORITHM HAS BEEN REVISED IN ORDER TO PRODUCE A `MERGED TWO- AND THREE-BAND ALGORITHM, WHICH OPTIMIZES THE STRENGTHS OF EACH INDIVIDUAL ALGORITHM. USING OUR FIELD DATA, WE HAVE PARTITIONED THE VARIANCE IN BACKSCATTERING ATTRIBUTABLE TO PIC, PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON AND BIOGENIC SILICA IN THIS MID-OCEAN ENVIRONMENT. THE OBJECTIVES OF OUR NEW PROPOSAL WOULD BE TO FURTHER REFINE THE PIC ALGORITHM TO REDUCE RMS ERROR AND PROVIDE NEW DATA TO INDEPENDENTLY TEST ITS ACCURACY. THE BRITISH HAVE INVITED OUR PARTICIPATION FOR FUTURE AMT CRUISES WHICH GIVES US UNPRECEDENTED ACCESS TO THE MID-ATLANTIC, CRITICAL TO OPTICAL MODELING OF PIC IN THE GLOBAL OCEAN. WE WILL TAKE ADVANTAGE OF OTHER CRUISE EFFORTS IN THE GULF OF MAINE FOR FURTHER CAL/VAL AND ALGORITHM REFINEMENT. I ALSO PROPOSE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE GLOBAL PIC PATTERNS. THE RESULTS OF THIS WORK WILL SIGNIFICANTLY ADVANCE GLOBAL-SCALE VALIDATION OF THE PIC PRODUCT (MOD 25) AND PROVIDE EARTH SYSTEM DATA RECORDS OF PIC. REFINEMENT OF THE PIC ALGORITHM DIRECTLY ADDRESS ALL OF NASA'S GOALS IN THE `CARBON CYCLE AND ECOSYSTEMS FOCUS AREA FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENTS : 1) DOCUMENT AND UNDERSTAND HOW THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE CHANGING, 2) QUANTIFY GLOBAL PRODUCTIVITY, BIOMASS, AND CARBON FLUXES AND 3) PROVIDE USEFUL PROJECTIONS IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS OF FUTURE CHANGES IN GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING FOR ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND IMPROVEMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS.
AR21: R&amp;D-SPACE SCIENCE &amp; APPL-B RES

  NNX08AJ88A  
Tuesday, September 9, 2008
$135.00
1300: COMMERCE, DEPARTMENT OF
000EA: EASTERN ACQUISITION DIVISION - NORFOLK

PO Purchase Order
JANITORIAL SERVICES
6810: CHEMICALS

  DOCES133F08SU2146  
Friday, October 19, 2007
$0.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Wednesday, May 2, 2007
$0.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Wednesday, January 24, 2007
($39,430.00)
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
AQUARIUS EDUCATION & PUBLIC OUTREACH SUPPORT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ56C     NNG04063000R  
Thursday, September 28, 2006
$39,430.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
AQUARIUS EDUCATION & PUBLIC OUTREACH SUPPORT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ56C     NNG04063000R  
Thursday, September 28, 2006
$28,834.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Wednesday, June 28, 2006
$39,690.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Tuesday, April 11, 2006
$44,000.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
AQUARIUS EDUCATION & PUBLIC OUTREACH SUPPORT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ56C     NNG04063000R  
Tuesday, February 21, 2006
$68,540.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Tuesday, January 10, 2006
$30,000.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
AQUARIUS EDUCATION & PUBLIC OUTREACH SUPPORT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ56C     NNG04063000R  
Friday, October 28, 2005
$10,082.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Thursday, September 29, 2005
$7,500.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
AQUARIUS EDUCATION & PUBLIC OUTREACH SUPPORT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ56C     NNG04063000R  
Tuesday, August 9, 2005
$90,740.50
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Tuesday, March 22, 2005
$100,822.50
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Thursday, July 1, 2004
$20,000.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
AQUARIUS EDUCATION & PUBLIC OUTREACH SUPPORT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ56C     NNG04063000R  
Thursday, July 1, 2004
$27,700.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
AQUARIUS EDUCATION & PUBLIC OUTREACH SUPPORT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ56C     NNG04063000R  
Monday, June 7, 2004
$247,559.00
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM EOS ALGORITHM OF REFINEMENT TITLED"THE MODIS OCEAN PRODUCT
AR92: R&D-OTHER SPACE-A RES/EXPL DEV

  NNG04HZ25C     NRA 03-OES-02  
Thursday, February 15, 2001
$40,000.00
8000: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
GSFC0: GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

DCA Definitive Contract

AR91: R&D-OTHER SPACE-B RES

  GSFC0199709DNAS597268